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is a bibliography Dissertation on New Woman Novelists (preliminary stage to prynne essay, Ardis's later book, see Ardis 1990). Assumes an early beginning of the modernist era. Attempts a diachronic arrangement of literary works. Provides many textual references. Ardis, Ann. 1990. New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Early Modernism . New Brunswick London: Rutgers UP. Batchelor, John. 1986. The Edwardian Novel.

London: Duckworth. Beauman, Nicola. 1983. A Very Great Profession: The Woman's Novel 1914-39 . London: Virago. Beetham, Margaret. 1996. A Magazine of essay use rhetoric Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. Study on the development of (conservative) women's magazines in the time of 1880-1914. Boom in the 1990s: New Journalism . Hester Punishment! Change of images of women to essay example, a limited degree and in opposition to the New Woman : discussion of middle-class working women, modification of the image of the housewife, division of the reading public into mothers , girls , fashionable women , women at home , ladies.

Culture of hester essay advertisement. Beddoe, Deirdre. Where Paper! 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars.

Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of prynne punishment essay emancipation, professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. School Essays! Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton. Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in hester punishment essay terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern gained importance in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of essay goals conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of time, plot, content and hester punishment essay, style.

Fragmentarization of essay explaining how macbeth characters use rhetoric to persuade plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Hester! Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of of a 5 paragraph cause and effect texts. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. Punishment Essay! The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material.

Part One: historical and scientific background of the essays, topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Hester Essay! Parts Two and to buy cheap, Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of hester punishment prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and ems resume, alternative forms of sexual identity. Brokoph-Mauch, Gudrun. 1995. Salome and hester prynne punishment, Ophelia: The Portrayal of Women in Art and to buy cheap paper, Literature at the Turn of the punishment, Century. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in 5 paragraph essay Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 466-474. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. Chinitz, David. 1997. 'Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach.

New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Feldman, Jessica. 1989. Gender on the Divide: The Dandy in prynne essay Modernist Literature. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of where to buy paper Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at prynne punishment essay, the Turn of the Century . Essay Characters To Persuade Themselves! Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Flint, Kate 1993. The Woman Reader, 1837-1914. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Study on female identity and hester, readership. Key words: motivation to read, responses to books, effects of reading on body and mind, reading in different contexts (e.g. advice manuals, periodical press, fictional reading, reading practices). Considers various discourses: chapter on medical, physiological and psychoanalytic theory. Provides information on the material read: helpful source for lesser known primary literature (novels and documentary texts). Gale, Maggie B. 1996. Where Cheap Paper! West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Prynne Punishment! Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and ems resume, family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter.

Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. Hester Prynne Punishment! London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Imd Business School! Deals with established and less established writers. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991.

Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different perspectives on how male sexuality is punishment essay constructed. Characters Use Rhetoric Themselves! Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Horn, Pamela. 1995.

Women in the 1920s. Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from hester prynne punishment essay, a gender-oriented perspective.

Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to ems resume, do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against hester punishment essay male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Joannou, Maroula. 1994. 'Nothing Is Impractible for to buy, a Single, Middle-Aged Woman with an Income of her Own': The Spinster in Women's Fiction of the 1920s. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945 . London: Taylor Francis. 175-191. Paper on the 1920s image of the spinster in hester punishment essay English culture and literature (May Sinclair, Katherine Mansfield, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Sylvia Townsend Warner, F.M. Mayor).

Discusses fears of society's feminisations through the demographic 'redundancy' of women and contrasts these with the actual economic and familial situation of the majority of English spinsters. Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Essay On All Myself! Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Punishment Essay! Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings.

Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Kent, Susan. 1987. 5 Paragraph Cause! Sex and prynne punishment essay, Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Imd Business! Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation.

Further foci: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Ledger, Sally.

1997. The New Woman: Fiction and essay, feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. Study on characters themselves, the New Woman: supplementary to hester prynne punishment, Ardis (1990). Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of essay on all myself controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Hester Essay! Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to example of a essay, be classified as modernist. Melman, Billie. 1988.

Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. Milgram Knapp, Shoshana. 1996. Revolutionary Androgynity in the Fiction of 'Victoria Cross'. Hester Prynne! In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press.

3-19. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Study on the feminist movement in on all about the context of the essay, modernist era.

Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and ems resume, 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Ouditt, Sharon.

1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on prynne, the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Goals Example! Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Hester! Feminist pacifism.

The shock experience of imd business school war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Pumphrey, Martin. 1987. The Flapper, the Housewife and the Making of Modernity. Cultural Studies 1.2: 179-194. Pykett, Lyn. Prynne Essay! 1992. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge.

Study on femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to their subversive and imd business essays, emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for hester prynne, literary history. Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on ems resume, the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Hester Punishment Essay! Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on about, the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society.

Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and hester punishment, formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the where to buy paper, modernist canon. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of hester prynne essay decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman).

Simpson, Anne B. 1996. Architects of the Erotic: H.G. To Buy Cheap Paper! Wells's 'New Women'. Prynne! In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 39-55. Stern, Katherine. 1987. The War of the Sexes in essay use rhetoric to persuade themselves British Fantasy of the Suffragette Era.

Critical Matrix 3.1: 78-109. Study dealing with differences of male and female utopian fiction. Genre: drama and novel. Hester Punishment Essay! Focus is on women's concerns: 'female' defence and 'male' rejection. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. Example! One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines.

Pages 77-117 are of prynne punishment essay particular interest. Chinitz, David. Ems Resume! 1997. Prynne Essay! Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Gitter, Elizabeth G. Where To Buy Cheap Paper! 1984. The Power of Women's Hair in the Victorian Imagination. PMLA 99: 936-954.

Analyses the significance of women's hair as fetish and instrument for hypnosis in the poetic and visual imagination of the Victorians. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Hester Prynne Essay! Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and essay myself, fashion: reciprocal influence.

Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of prynne femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. Marvin, Carolyn. 1988. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century . New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cultural studies approach. Analyses technological innovations (the 'new media') of the late 19th century and their medial and communicative impact in Anglo-American culture. Ch. 3: Focuses on the gender-specific functionalization of the body for promoting new electronic technologies. Müller-Tamm, Pia Katharina Sykora, eds. 1999. Puppen.

Körper. Automaten: Phantasmen der Moderne. Kunstsammlung NRW, Düsseldorf: Oktagon. Collection of essays discussing modernist representations of the puppet, the body and the automaton. The book includes a picture catalogue with short explanatory texts. The ten essays go beyond the on all about myself, discourse of fine arts: they show different perspectives on the subject reflecting both the boundary position of the artificial human being between art and cultural history and its transformation within contemporary art.

Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. Hester! In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and example and effect essay, Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . Hester Prynne! New York London: W.W.

Norton. Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to on all about myself, certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Whiteley, Nigel. 1997.

Whitewash, Ripolin, Shop-Girls, and Matière : Modernist Design and Gender. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 199-228. Bland, Lucy. Hester! 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is example 5 paragraph cause and effect a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material.

Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of hester prynne punishment essay femininity in ems resume dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Castle, Terry. 1993. Prynne Punishment! The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. New York: Columbia UP.

Felski, Rita. 1995. About! The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from punishment essay, cultural theory and essay explaining use rhetoric to persuade themselves, cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of prynne punishment essay publication.

Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991.

Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Essay Characters Use Rhetoric To Persuade Themselves! Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on prynne, biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster.

Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Essay Explaining Use Rhetoric To Persuade Themselves! Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of prynne punishment essay love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for cause and effect, extra-marital love. Yet the prynne essay, problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on on all about myself, the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context.

Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at hester prynne punishment essay, the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. (ch. 5 on lesbian identity) Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). How Macbeth Characters Use Rhetoric To Persuade Themselves! Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate.

Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties: Aspects of prynne essay Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. One field of analysis are theories of sexuality and their portrayal in 1920s English literature (D.H. Lawrence, Joyce), the legal situation concerning homosexuality, psychology's impact on sexual 'liberation' and the attitude of the Bloomsbury Group towards sexuality.

Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality. Imd Business! Key words: Debate on hester prynne, social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990.

The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: 19th century. Important points: Historicity of cheap paper gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Rado, Lisa.

2000. The Modern Androgyne Imagination. A Failed Sublime. Charlottesville and London: UP of Virginia. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and hester punishment essay, Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on where cheap paper, physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of hester prynne essay decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Weeks, Jeffrey.

1985. Example Of A 5 Paragraph And Effect! Sexuality and hester punishment essay, its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the ems resume, scientific discourse on hester prynne punishment essay, sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics. A very useful collection of articles from the perspectives of natural science, social science and the humanities which provides an overview on the degeneration debate in the 19th and the early 20th centuries. The institutionalisation of the degeneration debate is essay how macbeth use rhetoric reflected in the light of the discourses of medicine, anthropology, and the theatre. Punishment Essay! Premises: degeneration as a counterpart to the nineteenth-century belief in progress; degeneration and regeneration as two poles of school essays a rhetoric strategy and logical order - fact and fiction at the same time.

Cf. Siegel for specific strategies of representation. Carpenter, Edward. [1889] 1903. Die Civilisation, ihre Ursachen und ihre Heilung , transl. Hester Prynne Punishment Essay! Karl Federn. Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger. [engl. Civilization: Its Cause and Cure ] Cultural criticism with a socialist orientation.

Characterised by a harsh criticism of civilisation in which cultural and bio-medical discourses intermingle: contemporary English civilisation as infectious disease either culminating in example of a 5 paragraph essay death following various stages of degeneration or culminating in social stagnation. The socialist form of society as utopian potential. Dijkstra, Bram. 1986. Idols of hester prynne punishment essay Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in the Fin de siècle. New York, London: Oxford UP. Study on representations of femininity in example of a and effect essay the late 19th century, proceeding from art history. References to hester prynne punishment essay, literature and other cultural discourses of the time. Of particular interest in this context: motif of the where cheap paper, self-sufficient Narcissa , a degenerate/deviant woman (due to her auto-eroticism) subverting the conventional image of altruistic femininity. Reference to her criminal disposition (Lombroso), Narcissa as a potential danger to male identity in sexological theory (Moll, Feré, Krafft-Ebing).

Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of hester prynne essay Modern Fiction and Culture . New York Oxford: Oxford UP. Fuchs, Stefan F.-J. 1992. Dekadenz: Versuch zur ästhetischen Negativität im industriellen Zeitalter anhand von Texten aus dem französischen und englischen Fin de siècle. Heidelberg: Winter.

Philosophically oriented dissertation on decadence. Rejects an historical approach to the literary texts of decadence, rather, uses them as a basis for historical and philosophical reflections on ems resume, pre-modern developments in the 19th century. Crucial points: the radically negative connotation of the prynne, term decadence, as opposed to its appropriation as a means to counter an optimistic bourgeois belief in progress. Greenslade, William. 1994. Degeneration, Culture and the Novel, 1880-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, materialism, and degeneration at the fin de siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Kline, Salli J. 1992. The Degeneration of essay goals example Women: Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' as Allegorical Criticism of the 'Fin de Siècle' . Rheinbach-Merzbach: CMZ-Verlag. Study of prynne Bram Stoker's Dracula analysing the essay myself, novel in relation to prynne, Nordau's cultural criticism and Lombroso's theory on atavism, degeneration, innate criminal disposition and 'moral insanity'. Main thesis: Stoker's novel shows a constant blotting out of the essays, sensus literalis by a sensus allegoricus with the latter serving as an instrument of an ultra-conservative (also in terms of gender), reactionary polemic against ongoing changes of consciousness and social changes of the hester prynne punishment, period. Link-Heer, Ursula.

1986. 'Le mal a marché trop vite.' Fortschritts- und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Spiegel des Nervositäts-Syndroms. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Ems Resume! Heidelberg: Winter. 45-67. Valuable historical overview on the cultural significance and medical diagnosis and treatment of nervous illnesses in the 19th century. Main theses: a) these kinds of diseases have always been read as cultural pathologies, i.e. Prynne Punishment Essay! as symptoms of ems resume cultural crisis; b) there has been no clear-cut temporal succession of notions of hester prynne punishment progress and of decadence but both have always been closely interwoven. The study places degeneracy (nervous exhaustion) in the cultural context of the time, as one of the goals, illnesses of the peripheral nervous system. Investigates modern nervousness as a syndrome and manner of self-description of an industrial culture striving after expansion and progress. Considers psychiatric writings of the 19th century (Erb, Morel, Beard). Mehnert, Henning.

1986. Zur Bedeutung der Begriffe 'symbolisme', 'décadentisme' und 'dégénerescence' im 19. Jahrhundert. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Hester Essay! Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. Where! 75-84.

Study traces concepts of decadence back to Montaigne and punishment essay, Rousseau and essay, analyses the later tendency to individualise and psychologize these notions (starting with Morel). Focus on Morel's prototypical study: the medico-psychiatric component of degeneration, which is also analysed in Magnan, Lombroso, Gobineau, Nordau and, as a literary premise, in Baudelaire and Huysmans. Nordau, Max. 1993. Degeneration . Lincoln, New York: University of Nebraska Press. [Original: Entartung , 2 vols. Berlin: Carl Duncker, 1892/93]. Study in hester prynne punishment essay two volumes by to buy cheap paper, Max Nordau, a doctor and cultural theorist, first published in German, from 1895 onward also available in an English translation. A scandalous success at punishment, the time, one of the best known works in of a 5 paragraph the debate on degeneration. It is a poignant, and at times openly polemic attack against certain tendencies in the arts: Decadence, aestheticism, symbolism (among others) are classified as degenerate (in a physiological and mental sense). Nordau's argumentation is prynne based on his medical knowledge and on the criminological theories of Lombroso. Criticism of essay explaining characters to persuade civilisation is expressed in the form of apocalyptic scenarios ('the dusk of nations') and, for the first time, presented as a concern of doctors and, especially, psychiatrists.

Phenomena of degeneracy (intellectual, moral or physical) become the object of psycho-pathology. For Nordau, mysticism and egomania count as typical symptoms of the degenerate artist, for prynne essay, which he offers methods of diagnosis and even suggestions for therapy. Nordau's study is an attack in scientific disguise against intellectuals and is directed against ems resume personalities like Wagner, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Swinburne, Huysmans or Wilde. Pick, Daniel. 1989. Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. 1848-c.

1918 . Prynne! Cambridge: Cambridge UP. A sociological study, well-documented and imd business essays, thoroughly researched. Provides important information on prynne essay, the concept of essay explaining characters degeneration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Hester! Pick predominantly analyses scientific and pseudo-scientific documents of the time, but also considers literary examples. Study covers texts from ems resume, all over hester prynne punishment essay, Europe but lacks any explicit reflection on the interrelation between degeneration and essay, gender. Pykett, Lyn. 1995.

Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in hester prynne punishment essay the Twentieth Century . London, etc.: Edward Arnold. Feminist study on the interdependence between constructions of femininity and ems resume, degeneration: The New Woman as cause and symptom of cultural degeneration and punishment essay, as 'cure for essay to persuade themselves, social evils'; like the homosexual, the hester punishment essay, New Woman is an of a essay example of the transgression of gender boundaries (illustrated also in exterior appearance: body and style); effects: pathological allocations of sexual excess, degeneration, denial of femininity. Urban mass culture and society as a product of feminisation. Hester Punishment! Feminism as a symptom of degeneration. Emerging concepts of regeneration within the feminist debate. Rose, Jonathan.

1986. The Edwardian Temperament 1895-1919. Athens/Ohio, London: Ohio UP. Study on the change of values in the Edwardian period, proceeding from cultural and literary history (however, literary texts are generally only ems resume discussed on a surface level, and the category of gender is reflected in a rather uncritical manner, if at all). Aspects of interest: religious (and moral) crisis, the secularisation of hester spirituality and the emergence of surrogate religions, the example, 'quest for otherness', the punishment essay, idealisation of interpersonal relations and in 5 paragraph essay particular homoeroticism, the cult of vitality as a reaction to late Victorian decadence, the motif of the illegitimate child and the unmarried mother, the efficiency movement and eugenics, the Edwardian culture of leisure and fun. Schulte, Christoph.

1997. Psychopathologie des Fin de siècle : Max Nordau: Der Kulturkritiker, Arzt und Zionist. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Revised postdoctoral thesis based on the unpublished works of Nordau (mainly letters, researched for the first time). A comprehensive study, structured biographically. Theoretical approach: rejects deconstruction, favours Foucauldian discourse analysis. Hester Prynne Punishment Essay! Content: Analysis of the interconnected strands within intellectual history 1870 to 1920. Shows the lasting effects of scientific positivism on social theories, psychology and medicine as well as the transfer of psycho-pathological findings into the field of civilisation and art criticism through terms like decadence and degeneration.

Shaw, George Bernard. 1932 [1908]. The Sanity of Art: An Exposure of the Current Nonsense about Artists Being Degenerate. Where Cheap Paper! In: Major Critical Essays . London: Constable. 281-332.

Polemic response to Nordau's Degeneration from the perspective of the artist. Shaw refutes Nordau's arguments by hester punishment, showing up their inherent paradoxical and unscientific nature and ems resume, thus attacks Nordau at his weakest point, i.e. Prynne Punishment Essay! his attempt to where, legitimise his theories with the help of medical science. Siegel, Sandra. 1985. Literature and hester punishment essay, Degeneration: The Representation of of a essay 'Decadence'.

In: Edward J. Chamberlain Sander L., Gilman, eds. Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress. New York: Columbia UP. 199-219. Trotter, David. 1993. Hester Punishment Essay! The English Novel in imd business History . London, New York: Routledge. (ch.7) Short outline of the hester prynne punishment, history of degeneration theory focusing on the origins of degeneration in the natural sciences and where, medicine, its Darwinist basis, the classification of degenerative symptoms, the hester punishment, emergence of a discourse of cause degeneration in the cultural and prynne essay, literary theory of the late 19th century.

Important points in how macbeth use rhetoric the literary context of degeneration: popularity of a 'plot of decline, of physical and prynne essay, moral exhaustion' in naturalistic fiction (also in so-called slum fiction). Degeneration as a topic in the new woman novel and on all, likewise in hester prynne punishment popular fiction. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast. Ems Resume! English Feminism Sexual Morality. 1885-1914. Hester! London et. al: Penguin Books. Bland's book is ems resume a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the hester punishment essay, (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time.

The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and ems resume, scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and hester prynne punishment, Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. DiQuinzio, Patrice Iris Marion Young, eds. 1997.

Feminist Ethics and Social Policy . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. A slightly heterogeneous collection of example essays focusing on examples of practised (feminist) morality. Hester Prynne Punishment! Requires knowledge of the theoretical discussion. Provides articles on ems resume, the following topics: politics, medicine, health system, military, immigrants, AIDS, pornography and abortion. Main focus: the situation in the United States. Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens. Hester Prynne! Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke.

A study on subjectively perceived marginality and its psycho-pathological and socio-pathological causes from the perspective of social psychology. Suggested approach: role theory. Of particular interest: Dreitzel's notion of 'Anomie' (= total lack or confusion of norms), which he derives from the history of sociology and supplements with his own concepts of interaction and role identity. Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development . Cambridge, Mass. London: Harvard UP. Probably the most influential feminist study on the topic of morality. Takes Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral development as a starting point.

Exposes Kohlberg's argumentation as male-centred. Modifies his theory with the help of object relations theory to account for gender differences. Gilligan's work is based on empirical studies. Her main thesis: due to disposition and essay example, experiences of socialisation, men/boys tend to an ethic of hester punishment essay justice whereas girls/women typically internalise an ethic of care . Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality.

Depicts different point of how macbeth use rhetoric to persuade themselves views on how male sexuality is punishment essay constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to imd business school, Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Harrison, Beverley Wildung. 1985. Making the Connections: Essays in Feminist Social Ethics, ed. Carol S. Robb. Boston: Beacon Press. A collection of essays (written between 1972 and 1985) on the feminist discourse of hester prynne ethics and Christianity.

Approach: theologically oriented social history. Harrison's ethics is characterised as feminist socialist Christian in Robb's preface. Cheap Paper! Harrison sets a universalist Christian ethics against the ideas of Carol Gilligan. Hester Prynne Punishment! Advocates an about equality feminism pleading for 'objectivity' of the feminist perspective. Hekman, Susan J. 1995. Hester Prynne! Moral Voices, Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and Feminist Moral Theory . Cambridge, Oxford: Polity Press. In-depth discussion of the work of Carol Gilligan offering various readings of her work. The study also provides a critical analysis of the meaning of morality in a poststructuralist context (Foucault, Lyotard et al.). Where! Documents a significant conceptual shift in the morality debate, which has lost theoretical impact through the influence of other academic disciplines.

Hekman favours a gender-oriented reconceptualization of moral theory that would take its pluralistic approach from prynne punishment, discourse analysis. Jakobsen, Janet R. 1998. Working Alliances and the Politics of Difference: Diversity and Feminist Ethics . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Study on feminist practices of alliance politics . Rejects notions of female unity as an axiomatic base. Discards the of a and effect essay, feminist difference hypothesis.

Argument proceeds from postmodern theoretical debates: ethics as a field of complex negotiations; agency as a basis for alliance politics. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and Sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. A very useful study which questions critically the general presumption of prynne essay sexual liberation in the modernist period, a development which continues to be regarded as one of the most characteristic and influential within the modernist context. Jeffreys shows that the emergence of sexology by explaining how macbeth characters, no means meant that women experienced sexual liberation.

Quite the opposite, according to Jeffreys, it helped to force women into male-dominated heterosexual patterns. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. Prynne! Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality. Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence.

Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990. Explaining Use Rhetoric Themselves! The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on hester essay, the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: ed. century. Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of example femininity in medical discourse.

Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Essay! Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Ems Resume! Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud, ed. 1995. Weibliche Moral: Die Kontroverse um eine geschlechtsspezifische Ethik . München: dtv. Essay collection which discusses critically and systematically Carol Gilligan's notion of a gender-specific morality (female ethics of care vs. male ethics of justice ). Hester Prynne Essay! Covers work by Butler, Gilligan, Harding, Habermas. Some of the articles were previously published. Singer, Mona.

1996. Where Cheap Paper! Weibliches Subjekt und Gastfreundschaft: Ende und Anfang einer Moral. In: Ruthard Stäblein, ed. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 118-139. Stäblein, Ruthard, ed. 1996. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Hester Essay! Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Relatively heterogeneous collection of essays, partly in form of interviews.

Includes articles by Baudrillard and Blanchot. Points of interest: morality's myths of origin, gender difference and morality (Nitzschke, Singer), Foucault's notion of how macbeth characters use rhetoric to persuade morality. Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul.

Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. Essay! References to imd business school essays, psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and punishment, their feminist reception).

Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on essay to persuade, the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Hester Prynne Punishment Essay! Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of where to buy World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women.

Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Prynne Punishment! Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from a woman-centred perspective. Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from on all, cultural theory and cultural history..

Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Garner, Les. Hester Punishment Essay! 1984. Stepping Stones to Women's Liberty: Feminist Ideas in the Women's Suffrage Movement 1900-1918. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP.

Kent, Susan. 1987. Essay Example! Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation.

Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Lyon, Janet. Hester Prynne! 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and goals example, interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the punishment essay, avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and imd business school, linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Lyon, Janet. 1994/95. Women Demonstrating Modernism. Discourse 17.2: 6-25. Stowell, Sheila.

1992. A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Suffrage critics and hester prynne punishment, political action: a feminist agenda.

In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Cheap Paper! 166-184. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the hester prynne essay, Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the example 5 paragraph cause and effect, few books specifically focusing on hester punishment, interpreting texts of high literary One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton. Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of example of a 5 paragraph cause and effect essay female concern that emerged in hester prynne punishment essay the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate.

Foci of essay explaining how macbeth to persuade New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of punishment essay time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts. Burke, Carolyn. 1984. Getting spliced: Modernism and to buy paper, Sexual Difference.

American Quarterly 39.1: 98-121. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. Punishment! In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. DeKoven, Marianne. 1991. Rich and ems resume, Strange: Gender, History, Modernism . Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on Gender, History and Modernism (DeKoven's periodization: 1890-1930). Based on Derrida's concept of two co-existing paradoxes ( sous-rature ). Main point: male and female authors are afraid of revolutionary literary changes for different reasons: on the male side it is fear of losing one's power position, on the female side it is hester punishment fear of where to buy cheap being punished.

Textual material: analysis of canonized texts. Criticism: DeKoven's study is partially difficult to comprehend. Felski, Rita. 1995. Hester Prynne Punishment! The Gender of essay explaining to persuade themselves Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and punishment essay, cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Friedman, Ellen G. Essay Goals Example! Miriam Fuchs, eds. 1989.

Breaking the Sequence: Women's Experimental Fiction . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and hester prynne, the London stage 1918-1962 . 5 Paragraph! London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the hester punishment essay, significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in example every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Prynne Punishment Essay! Topics of example of a 5 paragraph interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman.

London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. Hester Prynne Punishment! 1992. Cheap! The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar, eds.

1986. The Female Imagination and the Modernist Aesthetic . New York etc.: Gordon Breach. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. I: The War of the hester, Words . New Haven: Yale UP.

Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. Where To Buy Paper! 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in hester prynne punishment essay the Twentieth Century. Vol. II: Sexchanges . Example Of A Cause And Effect Essay! New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. III: Letters from the Front . New Haven: Yale UP. Griffin, Gabriele, Ed.

1994. Difference in View: Women and prynne punishment essay, Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Ingram, Angela Daphne Patai, eds. 1993. Ems Resume! Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press.

Essay collection on radical feminist socialist women writers between 1889 and 1939. Textual material: novels in general (special focus on hester, popular literature by forgotten female authors), a multitude of biographical information, New Woman novel , Romance, Utopian fiction. Distinction between middle-class and working-class authors and readers. Topics of example cause and effect essay social criticism: birth control, marriage, alcoholism, venereal disease. Formal aspects: Modification of plot with feminist impact.

Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Punishment Essay! Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings.

Study contains a detailed chapter on example of a cause, the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Light, Alison. 1991. Forever England: Femininity, literature and conservatism between the wars . London New York: Routledge. Laity, Cassandra. 1996.

H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Prynne Punishment! Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Liska, Vivian. 1995. From Topos to Trope: Feminist Revision of Modernism. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the and effect, Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 66-76. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era.

Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of hester punishment women's novels between 1900 and on all about, 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the prynne essay, transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and ems resume, formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of essay marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Montefiore, Janet. 1996.

Men and imd business essays, Women Writers of the 1930s: The dangerous flood of history . London New York: Routledge. Useful study on lesser known authors and texts. Textual material: works by left-wing women writers, antifascist texts, novels, autobiography and poetry. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing.

London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the punishment, importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Forerunners of essay how macbeth characters use rhetoric themselves modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by hester, introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Example 5 Paragraph Cause Essay! Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at hester prynne punishment essay, the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society. Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against essay explaining how macbeth use rhetoric to persuade a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996.

Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of hester prynne essay World War I on society and particularly on literature. Example! Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and hester prynne punishment essay, Elizabeth Bowen. Rado, Lisa, ed. 1994.

Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. Feminist collection of imd business school essays on modernism. Essays address the following topics: Dorothy Richardson as a modernist, Rebecca West as a critic, Left Bank Women and lesbian life, the work of hester prynne essay Sylvia Townsend-Warner, women's magazines, Wyndham Lewis's Tarr (as a misogynous text). Of particular importance is Felski's article on the term 'modernism' (see above Felski 1994). Schabert, Ina. 1997.

Englische Literaturgeschichte: Eine Darstellung aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. Srebrnik, Patricia. 1994. The re-subjection of 'Lucas Malet': Charles Kingsley's daughter and where to buy paper, the response to muscular Christianity. In: Donald E. Hester! Hall, ed.

Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 194-214. Canon-revisionary article on Lucas Malet (pseudonym of Charles Kingsley's daughter). Questions traditional concepts of masculinity in Malet's Novels. Stowell, Sheila. 1992.

A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Essay! Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Waters, Chris. 1993. New Women and Socialist-Feminist Fiction: The Novels of Isabella Ford and Katherine Bruce Glasier.

In: Angela Ingram Daphne Patai, eds. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. Hester! 25-42. Altick's seminal account of the where to buy cheap, development of the reading culture in hester prynne England from the 15th to the early 20th century. Especially his chapter on Periodicals and essay, Newspapers 1851-1900 (chapter 15) is important for an understanding of the background of publication practices in the modernist period. Benstock, Shari. 1986. Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940 . Prynne! London: Virago. An important study on women writers of the Left Bank in general. Of special interest is chapter 10: At the Sign of the Printing Press: The Role of Small Presses and Little Magazines.

Unfortunately Benstock remains on a biographical and anecdotal level, introducing editors, publishers and contributors. She says very little about the actual contributions. Beetham, Margaret. 1996. A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. It is Parts III and imd business school essays, IV (New Woman, New Journalism, the 1880s and 1890s, The reinvention of the domestic English woman: into the twentieth century) that are of particular interest. Beetham concentrates on magazines that offer alternative and reactionary discourses on women to the innovative trends of the time. She also comments on the literature that appeared in these magazines and hester prynne essay, its function. She thus offers an important view of this area of public culture that many of the modernist women reacted against. Dennison, Sally.

1984. [Alternative] Literary Publishing: Five Modern Histories . Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. Dennison demonstrates how all sorts of non-commercial publishing - from self-publishing to small presses, university press publishing, little magazine publishing, publishing through a bookstore, and publishing through patrons - helped to further modernist literature and to make it accessible to a wider audience. In most cases such alternative publishing was the only means for young authors to get their works published at all. Dennison uses Eliot, Joyce, Woolf, Nin, and Nabokov as examples. What she fails to notice is that alternative publishing can have commerical interests, too (see Rainey 1989, 1997, 1998). Dettmar, Kevin J.H.

Stephen Watt, eds. 1996. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. An important essay collection by young American scholars presenting a new perspective on and evaluation of modernist literature. They distance themselves from the traditional view of modernism as an essay myself awe-inspiring solitary fortress against a growing mass culture by showing that it was clearly rooted within commodity culture, too. Today it is difficult to imagine that some senior scholars refused to hester punishment, contribute to this collection because they considered it inappropriate to discuss financial interests and commodity culture in connection with modernist literature.

Of particular interest are the introduction and the essays by Diepeveen, Materer, and Murphy (see the respective entries). Eliot, Simon. 1994. Some Patterns and Trends in British Publishing, 1800-1919 . London: The Bibliographical Society. A statistical survey of book and magazine publications in of a and effect essay the period of prynne 1800-1919. The data is covered in six sections: Section A The Annual Pattern of Publication; Section B The Monthly Pattern of Publication 1800-1919; Section C Subject Publishing; Section D Price Structure; Section E Periodical Publication; Section F The Background. Unfortunately Eliot focuses mainly on the 19th century.

He has nothing to say on the magazine and newspaper market in the 20th century, for example, so that his survey is only of very limited value for the modernist period. Feather, John. 1988. A History of British Publishing . London: Croom Helm. Feather offers important background information about the development of the publishing trade in Britain. Although he only focuses on commercial publishing the study offers some useful background information about the book market in general. And Effect! Of particular interest is Part IV: The Trade in the Twentieth Century in which Feather uses Stanley Unwin, Victor Gollancz and Allen Lane as examplary publishers. Garrity, Jane.

1999. 'Selling Culture to the Civilized': Bloomsbury, British Vogue , and the Marketing of National Identity. Hester Prynne Essay! Modernism/modernity 6.2: 29-58. Garrity shows that the connection between commodity culture and 'high culture' was much closer than has been previously thought by demonstrating how readily the various members of the essay goals, Bloomsbury group published in Vogue . Hanscombe, Gillian and hester prynne, Virginia L. Smyers. 1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of special interest for modernist publication practices in general are Chapter 12 'The public is a stupid beast. ' Book publishing I and imd business school, Chapter 13 'There is a climax in hester prynne essay sensibility' Book publishing II in which they particularly stress the essay about myself, close connection between little magazines and the book market. They argue that in most cases of experimental writing only publication in little magazines made a later book publication possible.

Jensen, Robert. 1994. Marketing Modernism in Fin-de-Siècle Century Europe . Princeton: Princeton UP. Jensen does not deal with modernist literature but with art. It is nevertheless an interesting study to compare developments in hester punishment the art world (especially the marketing of avant-garde artists) and the book market. Kaufmann, Michael. 1998. A Modernism of imd business essays One's Own: Virginia Woolf's TLS Reviews and Eliotic Modernism.

In: Beth Carol Rosenberg Jeanne Dubino, eds. Virginia Woolf and the Essay . New York: St Martin's Press. 137-155. Kaufmann shows how the place of publication can be indicative of an author's conception of literature and her or his readership by comparing Virginia Woolf's and T.S. Eliot's essays. He argues that Woolf's reviews in the TLS address a much more 'common reader' than Eliot's essays in ephemeral and elitist little magazines such as The Egoist and The Little Review . Keating, Peter. Essay! 1989. Of A 5 Paragraph And Effect Essay! The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. A seminal social historical account of the development of the contemporary bookmarket.

Keating shows what influence the conditions and changes in the bookmarket had on writers. Leavis, Q.D. 1932. Fiction and the Reading Public . London: Chatto Windus. Leavis's still interesting study of British reading habits in the 1920s. It is not only an important document because of the empirical data she offers but also as a New Critical position taking within the intellectual and literary field of the early 1930s. Lee, Hermione. 1998. 'Crimes of Criticism': Virginia Woolf and Literary Journalism. In: Jeremy Treglown Bridget Bennett, eds.

Grub Street and the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and Literary Scholarship from Fielding to the Internet . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Essay! 112-134. Lee not only gives an overview of Virginia Woolf's journalistic work but also shows how she used journals and literary and little magazines in order to advertise her own and her friends' work as well as the Hogarth Press. McDonald, Peter D. 1997. British Literary Culture and Publishing Practice 1880-1914 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Unfortunately a misleading title. McDonald does not analyse the publication system in the age of transition but rather in ems resume late Victorianism. Hester Essay! He hardly pays any attention to the authors of the 1890s. His case studies focus rather on Joseph Conrad, Arnold Bennett, and ems resume, Arthur Conan Doyle without making clear why he chose these authors. Ohmann, Richard. 1996.

Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and Class at the Turn of the Century . New York: Verso. Rainey, Lawrence. 1998. Institutions of Modernism: Literary Editors and Public Culture . New Haven: Yale UP. A seminal contribution to the argument that the alleged gap between modernism and public (or even mass) culture was not as great as the modernists claimed themselves. As example cases Rainey uses the publication history of hester punishment Pound, H.D., Joyce's Ulysses and Eliot's The Waste Land. One rather irritating 'flaw' of this otherwise important study is Rainey's discussion of H.D.

Here he leaves his seemingly disinterested position and tries to essay goals, show that H.D.'s recanonisation by feminist critics was a mistake since H.D.'s work does not deserve it at all (a judgement of the value of an author he does not give with respect to any of the male authors!). Wexler, Joyce Piell. Punishment Essay! 1997. Characters Use Rhetoric To Persuade Themselves! Who Paid for Modernism? Art, Money, and the Fiction of Conrad, Joyce, And Lawrence . Fayetteville: The University of hester prynne essay Arkansas Press. Using the imd business essays, careers of Conrad, Joyce and Lawrence as examples Wexler demonstrates that the modernist artists' image as oppositions to financially oriented bourgeois artists is a myth and that authors made use of this myth to further their success. She also shows that in hester prynne punishment modernism the writer's position became particularly complicated because s/he was wedged between the Romantic ideal of the genius who shows no interest in his or her market value and an interest in acknowledgement (because no recognition at all is still regarded as a sign of failure) and being able to live on one's writing. White, Cynthia L. 1970.

Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of how macbeth characters use rhetoric to persuade women's magazines. One of White's foci is the essay, literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of particular interest. Willison, Ian, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik, eds.

1996. Modernist Writers and the Marketplace . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. An essay collection that deals with the conditions of publication for modernist writers, focusing on the publication histories of individual (canonised) authors (James, Yeats, Conrad, Lawrence, Woolf, Eliot, Pound, Lewis). School Essays! Only Edward Bishops essay on little magazines (see above) offers a more general overview on avant-garde publication practices. 291 (1915-1916, American magazine) The (New) Adelphi (1923-1955) Art and Letters (1917-1920) Blue Review (1913)

Broom (1921-1924, American magazine) The Calendar of Modern Letters (1925-1927) The Chapbook (1919-1925) The Criterion (1922-1939) The Dial (1880-1929, American magazine; especially the era of Scofield Thayer's and Marianne Moore's editorship 1920-1929)

The Egoist (1914-1919) The Enemy (1927-1929) (New) English Review (1908-1937) The (New) Freewoman (1911-1914) The Golden Hind (1922-1924) Life and Letters (1923-1924) Life and Letters later Life and prynne punishment, Letters Today (1928-1950) The Little Review (1914-1929, American magazine) The London Aphrodite (1928-1929) The London Mercury (1919-1939)

The Masses (1911-1917, American magazine) New Age (1894-1938; especially the ems resume, years of A.R. Orage's editorship, 1908-1922) The New Coterie (1925-1927) The New Masses (1926-. American magazine)

Others (1915-1919, American Magazine) Open Window (1910-1911) (New) Oxford Outlook (1919-1932) Oxford Broom (1923) The Palatine Review (1916-1917) Poetry (1912-present, American magazine; especially the phase of hester prynne punishment essay Harriet Monroe's editorship, 1912-1935) Poetry and Drama (1913-1914) The Poetry Review (1912-present)

The Scottish Chapbook (1922-1923) Secession (1922-1924; exile-American magazine published in various European cities) Time and Tide (1920-1979) [in its first phase 1920-1928 it was a little magazine] Transatlantic Review (1924-1925) transition (1927-1938, published in essay about France and Holland) The Tyro (1921-1922)

Wheels: An Anthology of Verse (1916-1921) One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for prynne essay, Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Ems Resume! Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the prynne punishment essay, only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Anderson, Margaret. [1930] 1971. My Thirty Years' War . Westport: Greenwood Press.

Margaret Anderson's famous autobiography in which she not only describes her unconventional life but also the imd business school, development of hester essay The Little Review under her editorship. On All About! This is, of hester prynne punishment course, a very subjective account, but it nevertheless contains important information for any study on little magazines. Anonymous. 1941. Little Mags, What Now?. The New Republic 104.13: 424.

A state-of-the-art article on ems resume, little magazines. Hester! The author discusses the development of a little-magazine culture in where to buy cheap America from the 1920s to the late 1930s and punishment essay, argues for a revival of little magazines in a 1920s fashion in order offer new authors a forum for ems resume, publication. Baker, Denys Val, ed. Essay! 1943. Little Reviews Anthology . Explaining To Persuade! London: Allen Unwin. An anthology of what Baker himself calls the best writing which has appeared in the little reviews and punishment, literary magazines of Britain since the outbreak of war (v). His introduction offers some theoretical reflections on little magazines. Interesting is his choice of little magazines from which he takes the stories and school essays, poems: The Bell , Horizon , Indian Writing , New Writing , Oasis , Opus , Our Time , Now , Poetry (London), Poetry Quarterly , Poetry Review , The Bell , New Vision , Wind and the Rain , Oasis , Opus , Scythe (formerly Townsman ), and Seven . Barash, Carol.

1987. Hester! Dora Marsden's Feminism, the Freewoman , and the Gender Politics of cause Early Modernism. Princeton University Library Chronicle 49.1: 31-56. One of the first essays on the development of The (New) Freewoman / Egoist from hester, a feminist to a literary little magazine. Barash presents this development as the story of Pound's take-over. This assessment has changed, though (see especially Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Bennett, David. 1989. Periodical Fragments and Organic Culture: Modernism, the where to buy cheap paper, Avant-Garde, and the Little Magazine.

Contemporary Literature 30: 480-502. The author sees in little magazines an example for a distinction between avant-garde and modernism as proposed by Peter Bürger (1974). Publications in the ephemeral medium of little magazines are still part of an avant-garde culture, but they become modernist texts by being published in book form. This distinction has been convincingly questioned by Bishop (1996) and Rainey (1998). Benstock, Shari Bernard Benstock. 1991.

The Role of Little Magazines in the Emergence of Modernism. Library Chronicle of the University of Texas 20: 68-87. An important overview of the copies of hester prynne punishment (American) little magazines at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas, Austin. Unfortunately the about, authors remain on a merely biographical level. The editors of the hester prynne essay, little magazines and their aesthetic ideas are introduced. Benstock and Benstock say very little about the exact content of these magazines.

van den Berg, Hubert Ralf Grüttemeier, eds. 1998. Manifeste: Intentionalität (Avant Garde Critical Studies 11). Amsterdam Atlanta: Rodopi. A rather heterogeneous essay collection on literary manifestos (mainly European modernist ones). Theoretically the imd business school, authors base their contributions on the intentionality debate (Eco, Searle, Fish, Knapp Michaels, Hirsch). Prynne Essay! The authors' claim that a manifesto is necessarily intentional and ems resume, that its authors' intentions can be gauged from prynne essay, it is quite problematic. Of particular interest are the contributions by Wolfgang Asholt (on intentional strategies in futurist, dadaist and essay example, surrealist manifestos) and by Martin A. Kayman (on Pound and imagism). Bishop, Edward.

1996. Re:Covering Modernism - Format and Function in hester essay the Little Magazines. In: Willison, Gould and example, Chernaik, eds. 287-319. An important overview of little magazines from the 1890s to the 1920s.

Bishop pays special attention to the connection between visual and typographical design and the literary contents of these magazines. He sees the different magazine as a representation of the increasing institutionalisation of modernism (in this he argues against Bennett's (1989) postulation that little magazines represent the avant-garde and not modernism). Bishop covers The Yellow Book , The Savoy , The Dial , The Little Review , Poetry , The Egoist , Blast , and Criterion . Bloomfield, B.C. 1976. An Author Index to Selected British Little Magazines 1930-1939 . London: Manssell. An additional (but by far not as comprehensive) reference to punishment, Sader, ed. (1976).

Bradbury, Malcolm. Ems Resume! 1958. Hester Essay! The English Review . London Magazine 5: 46-57. One of the first accounts of The English Review with a special focus on the period of Ford Madox Ford's editorship. Bradbury stresses that this was one of the few Edwardian magazines where new and essay about, experimental could publish alongside more traditional ones. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1961. The Calendar of Modern Letters : A Review in Retrospect.

London Magazine n.s. 1.7: 37-47. Bradbury's attempt to revaluate The Calendar of Modern Letters as an important literary-critical review alongside The Criterion and The Adelphi . He points out hester punishment, that the Calendar served as model for F.R. Leavis's Scrutiny (a series of critical articles in the Calendar , called Scrutinies actually gave Leavis's magazine its name). Unfortunately the Calendar 's importance is essay goals example still not recognised today. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971.

The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1920. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. This chapter is of interest because Bradbury introduces some of the important contemporary British little magazines such as Rhythm / The Blue Review , The Poetry Review , a Poetry and Drama , The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist , and Blast . Bradbury, Malcolm. 1995. The Criterion. A Literary Review in Retrospect.

The London Magazine 5.2: 41-54. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1999. Modernism and the Magazines. In: Heinz Antor and Kevin L. Cope, eds. Transcultural Encounters - Studies in hester prynne punishment essay English Literatures . Heidelberg: Winter. Example Of A 5 Paragraph Cause Essay! 187-313. A survey of little magazines which mainly remains on a positivist level, listing names of magazines, editors, and contributors. Bradbury demonstrates the interconnection of the prynne punishment essay, development of modernism and of little magazine. He manages to give an essay on all about idea of the hester prynne punishment, diversity of magazines, but because he covers so many he does not have much space for essay characters to persuade, detailed discussions of specific examples.

Bradbury, Malcolm James McFarlane. 1976. Punishment Essay! Movements, Magazines and Manifestos: The Succession from goals example, Naturalism. Punishment! In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 192-205. The authors show how much the various European modernist movements (especially Imagism, Vorticism, Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and Dadaism) depended on little magazines as an outlet.

Casford, E. Leonore. 1929. 5 Paragraph Cause! The Magazines of the 1890's: A Chapter in the History of English Periodicals; Being a Critical Study of The Albemarle, The Yellow Book, and The Savoy, with a Brief Description of prynne Other Literary Magazines of the 1890's (Language and ems resume, Literature Series 1). Essay! Eugene: University of Oregon Press. An important overview of little magazines of the 1890s which shows how early the concept of little magazines received literary critical attention. Apart from The Albemarle , The Yellow Book and The Savoy Casford also discusses The Anti-Philistine , The Butterfly , The Dome , Hobby Horse , The Pageant and The Quarto . Clarke, Bruce. 1985. Dora Marsden's Egoism and Modernist Letters: West, Weaver, Joyce, Pound, Lawrence, Williams, Eliot. Works and Days 2.2: 27-47. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996).

Clarke, Bruce. 1992. Dora Marsden and Ezra Pound: The New Freewoman and 'The Serious Artist'. Contemporary Literature 33.1: 91-112. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce. 1996.

Dora Marsden and Early Modernism: Gender, Individualism, Science . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. An important revaluation of Dora Marsden's role in the cultural field at the beginning of the 20th century. Clarke argues that Marsden's intellectual development from explaining how macbeth characters to persuade themselves, suffragism to egoism mirrors in a nutshell the direction literature took at the time (a turn from essay, personal politics to an individualistic literary practice, 1). He provides a detailed account of Marsden's philosophical, political and literary influences. Other than Barash (1987) Clarke sees Marsden's change of name of her little magazine from example, The (New) Freewoman to The Egoist as a voluntary one. He thus reduces the influence Pound allegedly had on her (see also Barash 1989; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993).

Clooney, J.P. 1938. Hester Punishment Essay! Among the Magazines. The Phoenix 1.2: 134-150. A very critical review of a number of literary magazines of the time with quite different literary and political positions ( The Townsman , Purpose , Life and Letters Today , Poetry , The Examiner ). Interesting as a document of how little magazines were received and discussed in the contemporary literary field. Diepeveen, Leonard. 1996. 'I Can Have More Than Enough Power to Satisfy Me': T.S. Eliot's Construction of His Audience. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press.

37-60. An interesting discussion of where how Eliot created his own elitist audience through his essays. Diepeveen shows the importance the ephemeral form of publication of little magazines had in this. Eliot argued that only in these smaller but literary more 'elitist' media of hester prynne essay publication could he find what he termed the qualified reader Eliot explicitly differentiated himself from editors of larger - and thus to his mind more commercial - magazines such as The London Mercury (see also Kaufmann 1998 on the difference between Eliot's and Virginia Woolf's conceptions of their readership). Dupee, F.W. 1938. British Periodicals. School Essays! Partisan Review 5: 45-48. A very critical review of British little magazines.

Dupee criticises their apolitical stance (which is not surprising considering the political position of the Partisan Review ) and at the same time stresses their ideological heterogeneity. He also finds fault with the hester prynne punishment essay, - to his mind - poor literary quality. He discusses The Criterion , Scrutiny , Purpose , Arena , Colosseum , Left Review , Life and Letters Today , and New Verse . Eliot, Thomas S. 1926. The Idea of a Literary Review. The New Criterion 4: 1-6. Eliot's own outline of an essay explaining how macbeth to persuade themselves ideal little or literary magazine. It not only offers a contemporary perspective on little magazines but also reveals important information about his own conception of literature. Emmart, A.D. Hester Punishment! 1923.

The Limitations of American Magazines. Modern Quarterly 1.3: 17-26. A very conservative critique of American little magazines and cheap paper, the literature published in them. He particularly finds fault with an alleged lack of moral and too much experimentation in hester prynne punishment essay the field of psychological realism. Emmart is especially critical of The Dial and The Little Review . Ferrall, Charles. 1992a.

Suffragists, Egoists, and the Politics of Early Modernism. English Studies in Canada 18.4: 433-446. Ferrall tries to show that Pound's 'take-over' of the New Freewoman and the change of name into The Egoist was not just an appropriation of a feminist magazine through 'phallocratic' and misogynist men but that this change reflects Marsden's development, too. He examines her turn from suffragism to imd business, a Nietzschean and Stirnerian egoism and essay, points out some analogies between her political and philosophical writings and that of the imagists, especially Pound (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Ferrall, Charles. 1992b. The New Age and the Emergence of on all Reactionary Modernism Before the Great War. Modern Fiction Studies 38: 653-667. Ferrall counters the punishment essay, notion that the New Age was one of the central magazines in propagating modernism in general. In contrast to Martin (1967) he argues that A.R.

Orage, the editor at the time only supported politically reactionary authors such as Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis and where to buy cheap, thus contributed to the development of a 'reactionary modernism' only. Fletcher, John Gould. 1934. The Little Reviews: Yesterday and To-Day. Prynne Punishment! Space 1.8: 84-86. An contemporary account of American little magazines (1914-1929).

Fletcher observes a tendency towards a proletarisation and a decentralization of essay explaining how macbeth use rhetoric to persuade American literature and hester prynne punishment, culture through these new little magazines (85). He does, however, acknowledge that some of the new authors would have had no other possibility of publication. Garner, Les. 1990. A Brave and Beautiful Spirit: Dora Marsden 1882-1960 . Ems Resume! Aldershot: Avebury. The first book-length biography of Marsden. An attempt at a revaluation of Marsden's role in the suffragette movement and in modernism. At times a little too subjective and anecdotal.

Of special interest are chapters 4 The Freewoman , 1911-1912; 5 The New Freewoman , June-December 1913; 6 The Egoist , January 1914-December 1919. Görtschacher, Wolfgang. 1993. Little Magazine Profiles: The Little Magazines in Great Britain 1939-1993. Salzburg: Salzburg University. Although Görtschacher focuses on little magazines of the second half of the 20th century his comments on the nature of little magazines in general are quite useful. What he offers is a descriptive discussion of various magazines and their editors (sometimes with interviews). It is a little odd, though, that he restricts the term 'little magazine' to poetry magazines only; his typology of little magazines is hester prynne essay thus not very convincing. Graham, Walter. 1930.

English Literary Periodicals . New York: Thomas Nelson. A very early survey of British periodical culture from the where paper, 18th century to the 1920s. He only prynne punishment briefly touches on little magazines, though. Of particular interest in this respect are Chapter 9 The Later Reviews and the Fortnightly , Chapter 11 The weekly journal of belles-lettres , and Chapter 12 (in which he discusses among other magazines The (New) Adelphi , The Athenaeum , The Criterion , The English Review , Life and where to buy cheap paper, Letters The London Mercury , and the TLS ). Grant, Joy. 1967. Harold Monro and the Poetry Bookshop . Punishment! London: Routledge Kegan Paul. A biography of one of the lesser known editors of little magazines ( The Poetry Review , Poetry and Drama , The Chapbook ) and a discussion of imd business essays his own poetry. Hamilton, Ian. 1976.

The Little Magazines: A Study of hester prynne punishment Six Editors . School Essays! London: Weidenfels and Nicolson. A much quoted study in hester prynne punishment essay which Hamilton focuses on an anecdotal and biographical account of The Little Review , Poetry , The Criterion , New Verse , The Partisan Review , and Horizon . Hamilton's ironical comments on contributions that he regards as inferior can be quite irritating. One severe disadvantage is that he neither gives any bibliographical information about the quotations he uses nor offers a bibliography. Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers. 1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of particular interest for little magazines are Chapter 10 'The stand of the individual against immensities. ' - Periodical publishing I and Chapter 11: 'Life for Art's sake. ' - Periodical publishing II in which they discuss the role of imd business school women in little-magazine publishing.

Magazines they cover include The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist (here they hold the early feminist opinion that Pound forced Marsden into prynne essay a change of about myself name and conception of her magazine, cf. Barash), The Little Review , The Dial , Poetry , Contact , The Transatlantic Review , The Quarter , Close-up , and prynne essay, transitions . Hayman, Ronald. 1975. The Calendar of Modern Letters. New Review 1: 14-19. Heyl, Lawrence. 1940. Little Magazines. The Princeton University Library Chronicle 2.1: 21-6. An early attempt at a definition and description of (American) little magazines.

Interesting as a historical document. Hoffman, Frederick J. 1943. Where To Buy Paper! The Little Magazines: Portrait of an Age. The Saturday Review of Literature 26.52: 3-5. One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of hester little magazines as almost the only medium of essay example publication for hester prynne essay, experimental young authors. Hoffman, Frederick J., Charles Allen and Carolyn F. Ulrich.

1946. The Little Magazine: A History and a Bibliography . Princeton: Princeton UP. Still the authoritative annotated bibliography of British and American little magazines. The introductory chapters are also of where paper interest. Hoffman, Allen, and Ulrich even attempt a typology of little magazines, but mostly they remain on a positivist and anecdotal level listing dates of publication, names of editors and contributors, etc. Homberger, Eric. 1976. Chicago and New York: Two Versions of American Modernism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 151-161.

Only of marginal interest for little magazines, but at least Homberger mentions the great influence of little magazines on the New York literary scene (e.g. The Liberator , Smart Set , Others , Glebe , Seven Arts , New Republic , The Freeman , Nation , Masses , The Little Review , The Dail ). Howarth, Herbert. T.S. Hester Prynne! Eliot's Criterion : The Editor and His Contributors.

Comparative Literature 2: 97-110. Johnson, Abby Arthur. 1973/74. The Politics of a Literary Magazine: A Study of The Poetry Review , 1912-1972. Essay Goals! Journal of Modern Literature 3: 951-964. Joost, Nicholas.

1967. Prynne! Years of Transition: The Dial 1912-1920 . Example! Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers. A detailed study of the development of hester essay The Dial from a rather conventional (literary) magazine to a platform for experimental literature under Scofield Thayer and Sibley Watson. Joost, however, argues that the literature that appeared in the Dial has been overestimated and that more radical magazines such as The Little Review did much more to further modernist writings. Joost, Nicholas Alvin Sullivan. 1970. D.H. Lawrence and 'The Dial'. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois UP.

A detailed account of Lawrence's involvement with The Dial in the course of essay how macbeth his career. A bit too anecdotal at times, but still readable. Kadlec, David. 1993. Pound, Blast , and Syndicalism. English Literary History 60.4: 1015-1031. Kadlec argues that the design of BLAST was informed by the development of syndicalist miner's actions in Wales under Tom Mann before WW I. Hester! According to him not only the magazine's name is indebted to the worker's movement but also its visual aggressiveness and aesthetic militancy.

He also attributes Pound's radical aesthetics in this period to his interest in ems resume syndicalism (introduced to him mainly via A.R. Orage's The New Age ). Kenner, Hugh. 1971. The Pound Era . Berkeley: University of California Press. Kenner's book is interesting as an account of Pound's involvement with The New Freewoman / The Egoist - especially if you compare it with more recent studies of this little magazine. It is amazing how Kenner manages to leave out Dora Marsden's entirely! Knight, Melinda.

1996. Little Magazines and the Emergence of Modernism in prynne essay the Fin de Siècle . American Periodicals 6: 29-45. Knight convincingly demonstrates that little-magazine culture in America did not begin in where paper 1912 with the appearance of Poetry , The Poetry Journal , The Smart Set and The Masses , but much earlier with fin-de-siècle magazines such as The Chap-Book , M'lle New York , The Fly Leaf , The Lark , The Philistine and others. She argues for a revaluation of these magazines' influence in the development of essay modernism. Lewis, Wyndham. 1927. Editorial notes: Art and 'Radical' Doctrines. The Enemy 2: xxiii-xxviii.

Lewis's own 'position taking' in the literary field. His editorial mainly consists of a biting critique of transitions and Gertrude Stein's - to myself, his mind - negative influence on it. Implicitly, of course, this is indicative of his own conception of literature and little magazines. Lidderdale, Jane Mary Nicholson. 1970. Dear Miss Weaver: Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876-1961 . London: Faber Faber. A still seminal biography of Harriet Shaw Weaver with a special focus on her role as Joyce's patron. But Lidderdale and Nicholson also touch upon her role as editor of The Egoist and publisher of The Egoist Press.

Little Magazine. 1997. Britannica CD: Version 97 . Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. A valuable first source of information on little magazines providing a definition, a list of the most prominent British and American little magazines, and a classification into different periods. MacKendrick, Louis K. Prynne Punishment Essay! 1972. New Freewoman : A Short Story of Literary Journalism. English Literature in Transition 15.3: 180-187. MacKendrick, Louis K.. 1975. T.S. Explaining! Eliot and the Egoist : The Critical Preparation.

Dalhousie Review 55: 140-154. MacShane, Frank. 1961. The English Review . South Atlantic Quarterly 60: 311-320. Marek, Jayne E. Hester Prynne! 1995. Women Editing Modernism: Little Magazines and Literary History . Lexington: The UP of Kentucky.

A very important feminist contribution to the history of little magazines. Imd Business! Marek tries to show that in the function of publishers and hester prynne essay, editors more women were involved in the development of modernism than traditional accounts convey. The question, however, remains why there were not more women contributors (especially in a British context). With the exception of ems resume Bryher, Marek focuses on American women editors and publishers (Harriet Monroe, Alice Corbin Henderson, Margaret Anderson, Jane Heap, Bryher, Marianne Moore) and has an additional chapter on Ezra Pound's role in little magazine culture. Marek concentrates on the editors' own writings in their magazines and their personal contacts. She says hardly anything about the set-up of particular issues or the norms and values conveyed in other contributions. Marks, Peter. Hester Prynne Essay! 1997. Illusion and Reality: the Spectre of Socialist Realism in ems resume Thirties Literature Williams, Keith Steven Matthews, eds. Rewriting the Thirties: Modernism and After . London New York: Longman. 23-36.

In his essay on British literature of the 1930s Marks also discusses the punishment essay, role of little magazines. He distinguishes between left-wing magazines that explicitly engage in the relationship between literature and politics (such as The Left Review , New Signatures , The Adelphi , and Cambridge Left ) and those magazines that are their unpolitical or conservative ( New Verse , The Criterion , Scrutiny ). Interesting for an analysis of the development of little magazine culture. Martin, Peter A. 1977. The Short Story in England: 1930s Fiction Magazines. Studies in ems resume Short Fiction 14: 233-240.

An account of the role of little magazines ( New Writing , New Stories , Lovat Dickson's Magazine , Penguin Parade ) in the development of prose writing - especially the short story - in the 1930s. Martin, Wallace. 1967. The New Age Under Orage: Chapters in English Cultural History . Hester Punishment! Manchester: Manchester UP. One of the first studies on the role of the and effect essay, New Age in the modernist period. Martin is a little too enthusiastic in portraying The New Age as a platform for punishment essay, innovative and experimental authors alongside BLAST and The Egoist (see for example Ferrall 1992b for ems resume, a more critical evaluation of the magazine). Masteller, Richard N. 1997. Using Brancusi: Three Writers, Three Magazines, Three Versions of prynne Modernism. Example Cause And Effect! American Art 11.1: 47-66.

Materer, Timothy. 1996. Make It Sell! Ezra Pound Advertises Modernism. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of hester prynne Michingan Press.

17-36. Materer shows how Pound took over advertising schemes from ems resume, commodity culture in order to make Imagism and Vorticism popular. He thus discloses the allegedly unbridgeable gap between the avant-garde and consumer culture as a mere modernist self-stylisation. He demonstrates how Pound used little magazines such as The Egoist , The Little Review and BLAST for his purpose and how these magazines themselves adopted methods from commodity culture advertising. Morrisson, Mark S. 1996. The Myth of the Whole: Ford's English Review , The Mercure de France and Early British Modernism. Punishment! ELH 63: 513-533. Morrisson argues that Ford turned to France, i.e. the Mercure de France in his outline of The English Review because he saw no English equivalent that could bridge the essay explaining use rhetoric to persuade, gap between 'high' literary standards and a broad audience.

He wanted neither a typical coterie magazine nor one of the typical mass papers such as the Daily Mail . Morrisson, Mark S. 1997. Marketing British Modernism: The Egoist and Counter-Public Spheres. Twentieth Century Literature 43.4: 439-469. An analysis of the development from The Freewoman as a suffragist magazine to The Egoist as a magazine of the literary avant-garde. Hester Prynne Punishment Essay! Morrisson shows that this change not only had an influence on the readership of the magazine but on advertisers as well. Of A Cause And Effect Essay! He argues that The Egoist folded up because in hester prynne punishment contrast to The Freewoman it failed to address a homogeneous audience (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 2001; Thacker 1993). Morrisson, Mark S. 2001. The Public Faces of Modernism: Little Magazines, Audiences, and paper, Reception 1905-1920 . Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. A seminal study of little magazines. Morrisson not only gives the typical account of little magazines' central role in the development of modernism but also analyses their relationship to what he calls the 'public sphere'.

He thereby manages to demonstrate convincingly that the alleged gap between mass culture and prynne punishment essay, the avant-garde is not as great as has been posited. He focuses on four British ( The English Review , Poetry and essay example, Drama , The Egoist , Blast ) and two American ( The Little Review , The Masses ) magazines (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997; Thacker 1993). Munson, Gorham. 1937. How to Run a Little Magazine. Hester! The Saturday Review of Literature 15.22: 3-4, 14, 16-17. A contemporary discussion of little magazine culture.

Munson interestingly already claims to have noticed a decline of and loss of interest in where to buy cheap paper little magazines as compared with the 1920s. Murphy, Michael. 1996. 'One Hundred Per Cent Bohemia': Pop Decadence and the Aestheticization of Commodity in the Rise of the Slicks. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 61-89. Murphy demonstrates that the connection between commodity culture and avant-garde culture was much closer than has been previously thought. He uses Vanity Fair to show how quickly commodity culture picked up some of the features of the avant-garde. Not only did modernist authors publish in hester punishment magazines such as Vanity Fair but also the advertisements in these magazines show clear influences of ems resume modernist art.

Nelson, Cary. 1989. Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910-1945 . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. In his study on American poetry of the first half of the 20th century Nelson also briefly discusses the role little magazines (including left-wing magazines and magazines of the Harlem Renaissance) played in hester punishment essay the publication and, ultimately, canonization of some of the best known authors. He also provides an impressive variety of illustrations from little magazines. Nelson's canon debate originates in a Marxist rather than a gender-oriented position, but he discusses some lesser-known women authors, too. Of A 5 Paragraph Cause Essay! One great disadvantage is the structure of the book: Nelson deliberately designed it as one long essay without chapter divisions so that the reader is left with the detective work of deducing from the implicit information given in hester prynne the course of the study what organisational principle underlies the study. Pollack, Felix. 1976. Elitism and the Littleness of Little Magazines. Southwestern Review 61: 297-303.

Pound, Ezra. 1930. Small Magazines. The English Journal 19.9: 689-704. Pound's own position on the role and functions of little magazines. He discusses almost exclusively the magazines he was involved with (and, of course, he is essay very critical of those he has left, such as Poetry ). He covers Poetry , The Egoist , The English Review, The Little Review , The Dial , and briefly The Criterion , transatlantic review , and transition . Rainey, Lawrence. 1989. The price of hester essay modernism: reconsidering the publication of The Waste Land . Critical Quarterly 31.4: 21-47. Rainey's seminal first contribution to imd business essays, the discussion of modernism's economic interests. He demonstrates that the question of where to publish The Waste Land was guided by financial interests.

Eliot ultimately chose the magazine ( The Dial ) that offered the essay, most and actually made quite a lot of money. The modernists' self-stylization as artists who had no interest in financial success whatsoever thus has to be modified. Rainey, Lawrence. 1997. The real scandal of Ulysses : How literary modernism came to retreat from the public sphere. To Buy Cheap Paper! TLS (January 31): 11-13. Rainey argues that Sylvia Beach's decision to publish Ulysses was not just a selfless act of support for an avant-garde author, but was guided by financial considerations as well. She consciously chose to publish Ulysses as a deluxe and not as a limited edition. The book thus immediately became a collector's item rather than a book for a limited audience. The attention was diverted from the hester essay, content to the book as object.

Rhondda, Viscountess, Margaret Haig. 1933. This Was My World . London: Macmillan. Lady Rhondda's highly interesting autobiography in which she also briefly mentions the foundation and essay about, development of Time and Tide . Rosenberg, Harold. 1938. Literature Without Money. Direction 1.3: 6-10. A contemporary discussion of the role of little magazines in hester punishment essay the development of modernism in America. Rosenberg stresses that the essay explaining how macbeth, little magazines often served as a first step in the publication history of an author and that commercial magazines and publishing houses latched on hester punishment essay, when they considered her or him financially promising. He notices a difference in reception with regard to of a 5 paragraph and effect, the three genres (decidedly less interest in poetry with the commercial publishers).

Sader, Marion, ed. 1976. Punishment! Comprehensive Index to English Language Little Magazines 1890-1970 . Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson-Organization. A six-volume author index to essay example, over one hundred - mainly American and British - little magazines. The entries include information on works by punishment, and about authors who were published in these magazines (interviews, articles, essays, poems, drama, fiction). Schwartz, Delmore. 1939.

The Criterion , 1922-1939. Kenyon Review 1: 437-449. Selver, Paul. 1959. Orage and The New Age Circle: Reminiscences and how macbeth use rhetoric, Reflections . London: Allen Unwin.

This is more an autobiography than an account of prynne The New Age and its editor A.R. Orage although he tries to improve Orage's reputation with his book. School Essays! Selver describes his own (rather marginal) function in the magazine. His comments on some of the avant-garde authors reflects his own conservative literary values. Singer, Herman B. 1940. The Modern Quarterly 1923-1940. Modern Quarterly 11.7: 13-19. A characterisation of Modern Quarterly from a political perspective. Prynne Punishment Essay! Singer focuses on about myself, the editor's (V.F.

Calverton) position with respect to marxism and hester punishment essay, the Soviet Union and its influences on the magazine. Essay Goals! He hardly says anything about the literature in hester prynne Modern Quarterly . Spender, Dale. 1984. Time and essay example, Tide Wait for No Man . London etc.: Pandora Press. One of the few accounts of prynne Time and Tide . Unfortunately Spender concentrates on giving biographical information about the most important (political) contributers (Lady Rhondda, Elizabeth Robins, Rebecca West, Cicely Hamilton, Helena M. Swanwick, Winifred Holtby, Very Brittain, and Crystal Eastman) and on reprinting some of of a 5 paragraph cause their articles. Apart from naming some of the hester essay, most prominent authors that appeared in Time and Tide she says very little about the magazine's literary contents. Sullivan, Alvin, ed. 1984. British Literary Magazines: The Victorian and Edwardian Age, 1837-1913 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press.

To date one of the ems resume, most important reference work on literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in hester prynne punishment an essay (whose length depends on essays, the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Sullivan, Alvin, ed. 1986. British Literary Magazines: The Modern Age, 1914-1984 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. To date one of the most important reference work on hester prynne punishment, literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Symons, Julian.

1967. The Cri. London Magazine n.s. 7: 19-23. A description of The Criterion . Symons presents the magazine as an odd combination of a conservative and overly academic literary criticism and imd business school essays, an interest in literary innovation, revealing T.S. Eliot's own position.

This also becomes apparent in Eliot's conservative social criticism. Symons notes some of the poetry that was published in prynne The Criterion as remarkable, the prose less so and he complains that some genres such as history and biography were ignored altogether. Tell, Waldo. 1934. Explaining How Macbeth Characters To Persuade! Review of Radical Magazines. Partisan Review 1: 60-63. An early account of hester prynne punishment essay a new turn to the left in (American) little magazines of the 1930s. Tell introduces Left Front , The Anvil , Dynamo , and Blast (not Wyndham Lewis's London magazine of 1913). Thacker, Andrew. 1993.

Dora Marsden and The Egoist : 'Our War Is With Words'. English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920 36.2: 178-196. Another attempt to revaluate Marsden's position as editor of The (New)Freewoman / The Egoist and where cheap, her role in the development of literary modernism (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001) Todd, Ruthven. 1939. The Little Review.

Twentieth Century Verse 15/16: 159-162. An early account of The Little Review focusing mainly on its early years. Todd criticises Margaret Anderson's indiscriminate choice of literature and stresses that her only prynne punishment essay real 'find' was Ulysses . He sees the goals example, most important improvement of the prynne punishment, magazine in Pound's employment as foreign editor. Trilling, Lionel. 1951. The Function of the Little Magazine.

The Liberal Imagination Essays on Literature and Society . Essay! London: Secker and Warburg. 93-103. Originally published as an individual essay in 1946 in an anthology on and of The Partisan Review this is prynne another quite early literary-critical account of the function of little magazines, especially with respect to the development of example of a cause and effect essay modernism. Trilling criticises that the intellectuals of punishment essay his time have lost interest in literature but sees a new hope in politically oriented little magazines such as The Partisan Review . Troy, William. 1930. The Story of the Little Magazines. The Bookman 70: 476-481, 657-563. Vondeling, Johanna E. 2000. The Manifest Professional: Manifestos and Modernist Legitimation.

College Literature 27.2: 127-145. Vondeling's notion of the manifesto is a little too vague, including essays and programmatic poetry, but she offers an interesting analysis of the function of little magazines in an author's self-legitimation. She focuses on Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Pound's essays in BLAST , and Loy's Feminist Manifesto and of a cause and effect essay, her essay International Psycho-Democracy. Wall, Alan. 1976. Little Magazines: Notes towards a methodology. In Francis Barker et al., eds. Literature, Society and the Sociology of hester Literature (Proccedings of the Essex Conference of the Sociology of Literature). Colchester: University of Essex. Where Cheap Paper! 105-117.

Wall provides some genereal sociological reflections from a typical 1970s marxist position on the status of little magazines. Essay! His main focus is on The Calendar of Modern Letters , though. In spite of Wall's today rather outmoded political stance he offers a valuable attempt to go beyond a mere positivist listing of imd business names of authors, editors and contributors. Whiteley, Mary N.S. 1932. Shall We Let It Die?

The Saturday Review of Literature 9.2: 19. A letter to the editor that regrets the imminent death of hester prynne punishment essay Harriet Monroe's Poetry . In a retrospective account Whitley stresses the magazine's importance in the advancement of to buy modernist - especially imagist - poetry. Young, Alan Michael Schmidt. 1973. A Conversation with Edgell Rickword.

Poetry Nation 1: 73-89. Zabel, Morton Dauwen. 1929. The Way of Periodicals. Poetry 34.6: 330-4. A comment on the death of The Dial and The Little Review , which Zabel with amazing foresight also regards as the end of a literary-historical era: In going, they open the way to our next literary period, and so leave with us some of the sensations of suspense we experienced when they first flashed upon the view (1929: 334). Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio.

Images of punishment Women, influence on women writers. Brantlinger, Patrick. 1996. 'The Bloomsbury Fraction' Versus War and Empire. In: Carola M. Kaplan Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . Example! New York: St. Martin's Press. 149-167. Buitenhuis, Peter. 1987. The Great War of Words: British, American, and Canadian Propaganda and Fiction, 1914-1933 . Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Study on war and literature.

Key words: established (male) authors, war euphemisms, war propaganda. Textual material: predominantly pamphlets, but also narrative fiction. Fictional accounts less obvious and stereotypical, more ambivalence (cf. ch. 8). Buitenhuis distinguishes between two phases: 1st phase - patriotic, glorification of hester war, 2nd phase - less patriotic, critical discussion of war. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487.

Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. Characters! pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and hester prynne, Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Fussell, Paul. School Essays! 1975. The Great War and Modern Memory . London New York: Oxford. Study on war and modernism.

Details on World War I: major events, the end of the Great War - national ideals vs. reality. Foci: war landscape - depiction of the hester prynne punishment essay, trenches and actual fighting, enemy territory vs. friendly territory, contrast home front - front, dichotomy of good and evil. Mythicisation and fictionalization of war: revival of the cultic, the myself, mystical, the sacrificial, the sacramental and the universally significant. Speechlessness in the face of terror and its euphemistic verbalisation. Hester Punishment! The pastoral as a sheltering place of escape. Homoeroticism.

Criticism: study is restricted to essay about, male authors and provides questionable value judgements. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is hester prynne essay not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of explaining use rhetoric to persuade themselves textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Punishment! (ch. Where To Buy! 6: Women's War) Goldman, Dorothy, ed. 1993.

Women and World War I: The Written Response . Basingstoke: Macmillan. Essay collection on women writers' reactions to World War I. Introduces female authors (not restricted to British ones). Key words: War from a female perspective, female world of experience. Patriotic vs. pacifist attitudes. Punishment! Textual material: poetry (contrast to male war poets) and novels. Hewitt, Douglas. 1988. English Fiction of the Early Modern Period, 1890-1940 . Longman Literature in English Series. London, New York: Longman. Higonnet, Margaret et al., eds. 1987.

Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars . New Haven London: Yale UP. Essay collection on gender and war. Postulates a gender-specific experience of the World Wars: confirmation of traditional gender roles, yet some change of gender consciousness in the field of war occupations such as driver, nurse, factory worker new professions (see Higonnet, Gould, Gubar). Questioning of masculinity through depiction of war neurosis and mutilation (see Showalter). Different perspectives and manners of perceiving war: men focus on the dramatic war action, women focus on the long-term effects of the war. (cf. Rebecca West's The Return of the Soldier ). Special role of literature: expresses problems more poignant, yet has little effect on political change. Hynes, Samuel.

1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on example cause and effect essay, the influence of World War I on literature and art. Hester Essay! Introduces war as a driving force for Modernism. Key words: Loss of values.

Decadence. Search for new forms and contents. War and on all about myself, the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for punishment essay, adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and imd business essays, literature. Representation of space is further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Hester Punishment! Criticism: On the essay about myself, whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography.

Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Prynne Punishment Essay! Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. (ch. 11: The Cubist War) Longenbach, James. 1989. The Women and essay on all myself, Men of 1914. In: Helen M. Cooper, Adrienne Auslander Munich Susan Merill Squier, eds. Arms and the Woman: War, Gender, and Literary Representation . Chapel Hill, London: The University of hester North Carolina Press. 97-123. Lucas, John.

1997. The Radical Twenties. Ems Resume! Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on prynne punishment, Jazz) Cultural-theoretical study on the 1920s as a time of essay on all about myself radical change. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of Wold War One on hester prynne punishment essay, the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Considers literary representation of space. Mowat, John Loch.

1955. Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. Modernisms: A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in essay the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the hester prynne punishment, flapper), architecture and mass media. Onions, John. 1990. English Fiction and Drama of the Great War, 1918-39.

Basingstoke: Macmillan. Study on British war fiction. Similar to Hynes (1990), but not as detailed. Centred on the figure of the hero and likewise the anti-hero. Considers comparatively few literary works, most of them established texts. Devaluation of minor works.

Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Essay Characters Use Rhetoric! Starts out focusing on a description of women at hester prynne essay, work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is where to buy cheap paper granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the prynne punishment, ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in essay explaining to persuade war literature. Critical reflection on the war and hester prynne essay, women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity.

Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and essay about, literature as part of punishment modernism. Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and imd business essays, Elizabeth Bowen. Trout, Steven.

1986. R. H. Mottram: The Great War and prynne essay, Europa's Beast . In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 51-63. Tylee, Claire M. Ems Resume! 1990.

The Great War and Women's Consciousness: Images of Militarism and Womanhood in Women's Writings, 1914-64 . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. de Vries, Jaqueline. 1994. Gendering Patriotism: Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst and World War I. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and punishment essay, Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. Example Of A Cause Essay! London: Taylor Francis. 75-88. Wilson, Trevor.

1986. The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and the Great War 1914-1918 . Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on World War I: based upon facts and events. Hester Punishment Essay! Key words: happenings at the front, the home front, working situation, job market and women's participation. Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of on all living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Punishment Essay! Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Zilboorg, Caroline.

1996. Irene Rathbone: The Great War and explaining characters to persuade themselves, Its Aftermath. In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 64-81. Berg, Christian, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. 1995. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in hester punishment Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993.

Literature and Culture in ems resume Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Booth, Michael R. Joel H. Kaplan, eds. 1996. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and prynne punishment essay, the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Essay collection on Edwardian theatre. Focus on example of a 5 paragraph and effect, the business aspects of theatre: stage, management, critics, audience.

Popular theatre: musical comedy, Music Hall, Variety, suffrage plays, East End popular theatre. Popularity of hester prynne punishment Cross-dressing: male cross-dressing as misogynist, female as positive (imitating the male accepted norm), general implication: blurring of gender boundaries. Butler, Christopher. 1994. Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and Painting in Europe, 1900-1916 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chinitz, David. 1997.

Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP.

Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Essay Example! Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector.

Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and essay, family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Griffin, Gabriele. 1994. Becomings as Being: Leonora Carrington's Writings and Paintings 1937-40. In: Griffin, Gabriele, ed. Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Holledge, Julie.

1981. Innocent Flowers: Women in the Edwardian Theatre . London: Virago. Hynes, Samuel. 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on goals, literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for modernism.

Key words: Loss of values. Decadence. Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for an adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is further considered. Essay! Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Isaak, Jo Anna.

1986. The Ruin of Representation in Modernist Art and Texts . Essay On All Myself! Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press. Kahn, Elizabeth Louise. 1997. Engendering the Scandal: The Cubist House and the Private Spaces of Modernity. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 175-198. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994.

Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on punishment essay, stage: attracting and ems resume, stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in punishment the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. Example! skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. Lucas, John.

1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and hester essay, Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. Where Cheap! 4 on Jazz) Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133.

Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and prynne, interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Plassard, Didier. 1995. Le Théatre de Kandinsky face à l'interpretation. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and essay goals, the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 507-521. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in prynne Early Modern Dance. In: Lisa Rado, ed.

Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Stevenson, Randall. 1992. Modernist Fiction: An Introduction . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. (ch. 4 on art) Weisstein, Ulrich. 1995. How Useful is the Term 'Modernism' for the Interdisciplinary Study of Twentieth-Century Art?.

In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Essay About! Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Yaari, Monique. 1995. Ironies of Modern/Postmodern Art: Duchamp, Margritte, Adami. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and prynne punishment essay, Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 537-552. Zabel, Barbara. 1997. Gendered Still Life: Painting of Still Life in the Machine Age.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Of A 5 Paragraph Cause Essay! Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. Prynne Punishment! 229-246. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the 5 paragraph cause and effect essay, wars.

Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . Prynne! London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. On All Myself! Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Carey, John.

1992. Prynne Essay! The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the of a cause, perspective of intellectuals. Key words: polarization - mass culture vs. literary elite. Revolt of the hester prynne punishment essay, masses. On All About Myself! Rewriting the masses: question of value judgements, increase in value. Cultivation of high intellectual standards as a means of excluding the hester prynne punishment, masses from a reading public. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh.

DiBattista, Maria Lucy McDiarmid, eds. 1996. High and Low Moderns: Literature and Culture 1889-1939 . Ems Resume! Oxford: Oxford UP. Hewett, Angela. 1994. The Great Company of Real Women': Modernist Women Writers and Mass Commercial Culture. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland.

351-372. Huyssen, Andreas. 1986. After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism . London: Macmillan. LeMahieu, D. Prynne Punishment! L. 1988. A Culture for Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in Britain between the Wars. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of to persuade themselves Writing, Politics and Culture.

Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and essay, discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Melman, Billie.

1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines.

Rado, Lisa, ed. 1997. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. Heterogenous essay collection. Key words: Flaneuse, Striptease, spirituality (moments of being), advertising in popular magazines, Modernist Design, Modern Dance, primitivist and matriarchal tendencies ( Herland ), Flappers and Jazz. Trodd, Anthea 1998. Women Writing in English: Britain 1900 1945. Example 5 Paragraph And Effect! London: Longman. Wicke, Jennifer. 1988.

Advertising Fictions: Literature, Advertisement, Social Reading . New York, Columbia UP. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in hester essay the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . On All About! Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on hester punishment, the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of essay myself space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Prynne! Space and identity. Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287. The article deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different rooms of the interior (factual and psychological ones). Becker, Sabina. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930.

St. Paper! Ingbert: Röhrig. Berghahn, Daniela. 1988. Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang.

Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and hester prynne punishment essay, art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Explaining Characters To Persuade Themselves! Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Boynton, Percy Holmes. Punishment Essay! 1913. London in to buy paper English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. Punishment Essay! 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976.

London 1890-1930. On All! In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Hester! 172-190. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986.

Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (cf. Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (cf.

Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Carey, John. 1992. Essay! The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of hester prynne Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective.

In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. Ems Resume! 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Frank, Joseph. 1963.

Spatial Form in Modern Literature. In: The Widening Gyre: Crisis and punishment essay, Mastery in Modern Literature . New Brunswick: Rutgers UP. Goals Example! 3-63. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

109-136. Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of text and structure of hester prynne communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. Example Cause Essay! 1984. Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies : 187-230. Article on gendered concepts of space in hester prynne essay architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gindin, James.

1992. British Fiction in the 1930s: The Dispiriting Decade . New York: St. Martin's Press. Study introduces only the well-known texts of the 1930s. There are several references to the literary representation of space (ex. Rosamond Lehman, Elizabeth Bowen)

Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940.

London: Mansell. 129-145. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of essays time and space. Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity. Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes).

Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation).

Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Klarer, Mario. Hester Prynne Punishment Essay! 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters. Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary study on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender.

Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Essay Example! Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Hester Prynne! Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction.

Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City. London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spencer, Sharon.

1971. Space, Time and Structure in the Modern Novel . New York: New York UP. Squier, Susan Merill. 1985. Essay Goals! Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Das Niemandsland in punishment essay der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol.

3. München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the imd business, trenches during the hester punishment, First World War in German and English literature. Voss, Dietmar.

1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Explaining How Macbeth Characters Use Rhetoric! Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. Hester! The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson.

Wolff Janet. 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and the Literature of Modernity. Essays! Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Würzbach, Natascha. in print.

Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in prynne essay der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Theory of subjectivity and identity. The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. To Buy! Codes of spatial representation. Hester! Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Ackroyd, Peter. [2000] 2001. London. The Biography . London: Vintage.

Alexander, Sally. 1989. Becoming a Woman in London in the 1920s and 1930s. In: David Feldman Gareth Stedman Jones, eds. Metropolis London: Histories and Representations since 1800. London New York: Routledge. 245-271.

Alter, Peter. 1993. Im Banne der Metropolen: Berlin und London in den zwanziger Jahren . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Alter, Peter. 2000. London in der Neuzeit. In: Andreas Sohn Hermann Weber, eds.

Haupstädte und Global Cities an der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert . Bochum: Winkler. On All! 57-79. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press.

Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Prynne Punishment Essay! Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Space and identity. Becker, Sabina. 1993.

Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. Ems Resume! 10 Contemporary London)

Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Hester Essay! Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang.

Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Brooks, J.A. 1982. Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Carey, John. 1992.

The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature.

Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351 - 375. Frisby, David.

2001. Cityscapes of Modernity: Critical Explorations . Cambridge: Polity Press. Harding, Desmond. Ems Resume! 2002. Writing the hester prynne punishment essay, City: Urban Visions And Literary Modernism . New York: Routledge. Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole.

Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. 1984. Example Of A Cause And Effect Essay! The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. Prynne Punishment! 129-145. Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Exploring London.

Walking the goals example, City - (Re)Writing the City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Hester! 267-283. Klotz, Volker. 1969.

Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen.

München: Fink. Kursbuch Stadt. Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972.

Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. Lehan, Richard. 1998. The City in Literature: An Intellectual and Cultural History . Berkeley: University of California Press. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Where To Buy Cheap! Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. 1995.

Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Hester Punishment! Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible. Essay Goals! Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256.

Milgram, Stanley. 1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt.

14-36. Nord, Deborah Epstein. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt - Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont. Parson, Deborah L. 2000.

Streetwalking the Metropolis: Women, the punishment, City and Modernity. School! Oxford: Oxford UP. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hester! Hannover: Jänecke. Pike, Burton. 1981.

The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Punter, David. Essay Characters Use Rhetoric! 1979. Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute. 46-72. Scherpe, Klaus R., ed.

1988. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Hester Prynne! Reinbek: Rowohlt. Sennett, Richard, ed. 1978. Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Sennet, Richard. Where To Buy! 1995. Flesh and Stone. The Body and the City in Western Civilization . London: Faber Faber. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed.

1996. Prynne Punishment Essay! Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the on all about, Urban World. Urban Resources . 3.2: 55-57. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe und Leonard Wallock, Hgg.

Visions of the essay, Modern City. Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins UP. Ems Resume! 1-51. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. Prynne! 1987.

From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. Essay Goals Example! In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the hester essay, Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989.

A Female Vision of the City: London in essay goals the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in prynne punishment the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed.

1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of paper Tennessee Press. Squier, Susan Merill. Hester Prynne Punishment! 1985. Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City. Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. (Ch. 5 The Carnival and Funeral of Mrs Dalloway's London)

Sutcliffe, Anthony, ed. 1984. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Ems Resume! Manchester: Manchester UP. Twyning, John. 1998.

London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Voss, Dietmar. 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Hester Essay! Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weigel, Sigrid.

1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Goals! Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984.

The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. Hester Punishment! London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1914-1939. Essay! London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan.

Wilson, Elizabeth. 1991. The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women . London: Virago. Wolff Janet. 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse. Prynne! Women and the Literature of to buy Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Bausinger, Hermann et al., eds.

1991. Reisekultur: Von der Pilgerfahrt zum modernen Tourismus . München: Beck. Berghoff, Hartmut, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. 2002. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Blake, Susan L. 1990.

A Woman's Trek: What Difference Does Gender Make? Women's Studies International Forum 13.4: 347-353. Birkett, Dea. 1989. Spinsters Abroad: Victorian Lady Explorers . Oxford: Blackwell. Black, Jeremy. 1985. The British and hester prynne essay, the Grand Tour . London: Croom Helm. Blunt, Elison Gillian Rose, eds. 1994.

Writing Women and Space: Colonial and Postcolonial Geographies . New York: The Guilford Press. Collection of essays on ethnological and geographical issues. Theoretical background: postcolonial studies, gender studies, discourse theory, and constructivism. Premiss: the white, middle-class subject constructs other cultures from a privileged and relatively uncritical stance. Essay About! Female living spaces: social mapping paves the way for hester prynne punishment, social and political orientation, territorial dissociation.

Fight against imperialism and gender-specific oppression. Articles on: Mary Kingsley's perspective on landscape, geographical spaces such as Australia, Western Africa, Ireland. Bode, Christoph, ed. 1997. West Meets East: Klassiker der britischen Orient-Reiseliteratur . Heidelberg: Winter. Brendon, Piers. 1991.

Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Popular Tourism . London: Secker Warburg. Brenner, Peter J., ed. 1989. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in 5 paragraph cause and effect der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Articles on the history of German travel literature. Introduction considers basic issues: perception of the foreign through patterns of the punishment essay, (kn)own. How Macbeth Themselves! Perception is influenced by emotions: stimulation, rejection, amazement.

Quality of travel experience ranges from dissociation to identification. Change of the German travel report relative to the changes in the philosophical conception of the world (homogeneity or heterogeneity of the hester, world). Brenner, Peter J. 1989. Cause And Effect Essay! Die Erfahrung der Fremde: Zur Entwicklung einer Wahrnehmungsform in der Geschichte des Reiseberichts. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Punishment! Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

14-49. Burkart, Arthur J. Imd Business Essays! Slavoj Medlik. 1974. Tourism: Past, Present, and Future . London: Heinemann. Buzard, James. 1993. The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to Culture, 1800 - 1918 . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Seminal study on hester prynne essay, the definition and history of tourism. Critically assesses the traveller vs. Ems Resume! tourist dichotomy . Tourism is approached in a differentiated manner weighing the following aspects: tourism as phenomenon of the essay, masses, processes of stereotyping the foreign, selection and assessment of tourist attractions, alleged authenticity, convenience and enhancement of infrastructure, the hierarchical structure of home culture vs. foreign culture, relaxation and flight from where to buy, civilisation, democratisation of travelling, antitourism ( off the beaten track ). Hester Punishment! Textual sources: travel reports, tourist guides, literary texts, documents on of a 5 paragraph cause essay, economic aspects of tourism. Chard, Chloe. 1999. Pleasure and Guilt on hester punishment essay, the Grand Tour: Travel Writing and Imaginative Geography 1600-1890 . Manchester: Manchester UP. Cocker, Mark. 1992. Loneliness and Time: British Travel Writing in the Twentieth Century . London: Secker Warburg. Study exclusively deals with white, middle-class, imperialistic, male authors. Uncritical stylisation of the male traveller as a hero (alleged male characteristics: self-discipline, survival in the face of danger, suppression of ems resume emotions, 'the lone wolf', self-sufficiency).

Claims travel literature to be factual. Cocker's arguments are not very well organised, nor up to the current state of research. Nevertheless, a useful source for male travel reports. Culler, Jonathan. 1988. The Semiotics of Tourism. In: Jonathan Culler, ed. Framing the Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions . Oxford: Blackwell. 153-167.

Article describes tourism as a semiotic system of stereotypization. Emphasises the prynne, fact that tourist attractions and souvenirs are semiotically communicated, i.e. they are signifiers serving the example of a 5 paragraph and effect essay, satisfaction of hester certain desires. Discusses this representative function of tourism from a Barthesian perspective, sees the availability of tourism as a commercial product. Thesis: semiotic processes of tourism turn the world into an accumulation of travel destinations. Dodd, Philip. 1982. Imd Business Essays! The Views of Travellers: Travel writing in the 1930s. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 127-138.

Dodd analyses the traveller's/the narrator's attitude towards the travelled places as the most important structural component of the text. In general, the attitudes mirror the culturally given standards; personal interests also come into the play: e.g. nostalgic childhood memories ( home tour ), social interests etc. Dodd discusses texts by Greene, Muir, Orwell, Priestley. Foster, Shirley. 1990. Nineteenth Century Women Tavellers and Their Writings . New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. The study predominantly deals with female English travellers/travel writers of the 19th century. It is structured according to prynne punishment essay, areas of destination (Italy, North-America, Far East) documenting the travellers' different attitudes towards the respective countries. Introductory chapter is of fundamental relevance for theories and histories of female travelling. The following aspects are given detailed treatment: breaking away from social conventions and characters, confining norms, the double bind of the female traveller and her difficulties as a woman due to male prejudice. Female travellers as exceptional women: acquisition of stereotypically male characteristics, emancipated behaviour (positive evaluation, depicted in an almost panegyric manner).

Mixture of male and female conventions of writing: topography, economic aspects, male activity vs. female aesthetics of landscape, female living spaces; objectivity, factual information vs. emotionalised information, expression of subjectivity and self-analysis, practising dominance vs. opening up to the foreign culture and hester, showing a readiness to integrate. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Imd Business School Essays! Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Leipzig: Reclam: 34-46.

Foulke, Robert. 1992. The Guide Book Industry. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of hester Georgia Press. 93-106. Essay on the genre of the essay goals, travel-guide: the hester prynne essay, travel-guide as the sole source for ems resume, mass-tourists, the best-selling subgenre within travel literature. Distinction between predominantly factual-informative and other, more personally oriented, guides.

Criteria for evaluation: travel-guides have to be up to date, affordable, handy, and hester punishment, respectable. Content: sights and practical hints (means of transportation, hotels, restaurants, food, clothing). Early travel handbooks in the 19th century are above all educational ( Grand tour ). Three different treatments of Bath demonstrate how travel-guides differ (in terms of selection, representation, or evaluation of the place). Frederick, Bonnie Susan H. Essay Use Rhetoric To Persuade Themselves! McLeod, eds. Prynne Punishment Essay! 1993.

Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. Essay collection on essay explaining characters to persuade themselves, women and travelling. Introduction discusses fundamental issues: women's motivations for essay, travelling (liberation from the confining domestic shelter, transgression of boundaries), special risks for women, self-development, women's difficulties in finding a balance between the essay on all, demands and conventions of home on the one hand and punishment, the freedom of travelling on the other hand. The individual contributions deal with examples of essay on all about myself women travellers, focusing on their encounters with women of other ethnicities and questions of sex, race and class. The representation of female travelling in literary texts is also considered: the prynne punishment essay, female quest plot seems to allow no happy ending for female characters (either return to restrictive patriarchal structures at ems resume, home or emigration to a foreign country). Fussell, Paul. 1980. Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars . Oxford: Oxford UP. Early authoritative text on travel literature. Deals exclusively with traditional male travel literature written between the wars (summaries, biographical details). Authors discussed are: Robert Byron, Norman Douglas, Graham Greene, D.H.

Lawrence, Evelyn Waugh. Aspects of analysis: major need to essay, travel in post-war society, boom of travel literature, introduction of passports, awareness of national borders. Travel vs. tourism, the latter strongly deprecated. Questionable categorisation of travel periods: exploration (Renaissance), travel (age of the bourgeoisie), tourism (proletarian age). 5 Paragraph And Effect! Fussell's study is of rather restricted use for information on prynne punishment, travel literature. Fussell, Paul. 1992. Travel and the British Literary Imagination of the Twenties and Thirties. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. To Buy Paper! Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press.

71-92. Ghose, Indira. 1998. Women Travellers in Colonial India: The Power of the Female Gaze . Oxford: Oxford UP. Postcolonial-deconstructionist and feminist study on India. Ghose's study aims at uncovering ideologies.

Shows women as doubly colonised. Women's subversive refusal of the colonial discourse, female quest for hester essay, identity. Questions of goals example ethnic difference and multi-culturalism. Contemplation of the Other serves self-definition (confirmation of the prynne, Self through reduction of the Other). The rational subject of European Enlightenment as the standard of evaluation. Textual sources: 19th-century travel literature of British women depicting different images of essay on all about Indian women. The female perspective of women travellers is influenced by hester prynne essay, aspects of race, class and gender. They seem to have taken over male positions of epistemological superiority, of voyeurs or spies. This is also evident in the description of landscape following the aesthetic conventions of the picturesque.

Henderson, Heather. 1992. The Travel Writer and the Text: My Giant Goes with Me Wherever I Go. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Essay About! Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of hester punishment Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. Myself! 230-240.

Henderson demonstrates the intertextuality of travel literature on the basis of several examples. Literary and cultural influences determined the perception and style of travel writers: stereotypes, prejudices, historical and prynne essay, literary knowledge, former travel reports. Impossibility of a direct access to essay how macbeth to persuade, the reality of the travelled country. Subjective experiences of the traveller as another element of mediating reality. Hindley, Geoffrey. 1983.

Tourists, Travellers, and Pilgrims . London: Hutchinson. Hunter, Jefferson. 1982. Edwardian Fiction . Cambridge, Ma. London: Harvard UP. Study on the Edwardian novel . Discusses predominantly male authors (only Woolf and Vita Sackville West are mentioned). Key words: Formal aspects (continuity and change). Depiction of social problems. Best-sellers (do not account for prynne punishment essay, the particular character of the epoch). Travel literature as a means of escaping into the exotic.

Imperialism. Debate on identity. The English country mansion as a topos. Criticism: Tendency towards superficial judgements. Ingemanson, Brigitta Maria. 1993. Under Cover: The Paradox of Victorian Women's Travel Costume. In: Bonnie Frederick Susan H. McLeod, eds. Women and ems resume, the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP.

5-24. The essay shows how women travellers of the Victorian and Edwardian period endeavoured to dress and act according to conventional norms of femininity. This caused considerable difficulties for women: mountaineering with crinoline and Alpenstock . Hester Punishment Essay! Dressing according to male dress codes was perceived as a loss of identity by most women up to the 20th century. Jost, Herbert. 1989. Selbst-Verwirklichung und Seelensuche: Zur Bedeutung des Reiseberichts im Zeitalter des Massentourismus. Ems Resume! In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

490-507. Kohl, Stephan. 1990. Hester Prynne Punishment! Travel Literature and the Art of Self-Invention. In: Rüdiger Ahrens, ed. Anglistentag 1989 Würzburg: Proceedings . Tübingen: Niemeyer. Korte, Barbara.

1996. Der englische Reisebericht: Von der Pilgerfahrt bis zur Postmoderne . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on imd business school essays, the history of travel literature in hester punishment England; attempts a systematic description of the genre. Key words: genre hybridity and openness, relation of fact and fiction, narrative components, subject-object relation. Marginally, Korte also considers travel literature by women authors. Distinguishes different motivations for travelling and cheap paper, different forms of hester punishment travel reports: pilgrimage (spiritual salvation), voyages of discovery (trade routes, map-making, exotic merchandise, conquest), expedition (scientific and nautical discoveries), Grand tour (identity formation, sights, sexual adventures), Home tour (getting to know one's own country, questions of national identity and essay, nationalism), subjectivity, experimental forms of travel literature in the 1930s (personal experience, civilisation critique), development of tourism (relaxation, security, comfort, sights), intertextual play with travel reports in postmodernism.

Kowalewski, Michael, ed. 1992. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. The contributions to this essay collection are quite heterogeneous with respect to content and quality, they are separately listed and annotated under the names of the hester prynne punishment essay, respective authors (see Rober Foulke, Heather Henderson, Mary Morris). The following aspects are mentioned in the editor's foreword: emphasis of the newly awakened interest in travel literature; hybridity of the essay example, genre (mixture of hester autobiography, journalism, travel guide, confessional literature, and novel); curiosity and desire for independence as travel motivations; subjectivity of ems resume travel impressions. Lawrence, Karen L. 1994. Penelope Voyages: Women and Travel in the British Literary Tradition . Cornell: Cornell UP.

Semiotic-psychoanalytic approach to interpreting travel literature and novels calling upon mythical constructions. Lawrence asks the essay, hypothetical question: What happens if Penelope no longer waits for Odysseus but begins to travel herself? Thesis: it is the traditional exclusion of women from example, travelling that brings about the male travel plot. Lawrence argues on the basis of psychoanalytic theorems: Freud's association of the uncanny with the stranger and the mother suggests the male traveller's ambivalent search for the maternal/original safety. Travelling enabled women to penetrate new spaces, experiencing the prynne punishment essay, tension between the familiar and the strange.

The flexibility of the genre of travel literature opened up opportunities for women, even the process of writing became a kind of travel adventure, a breaking away from male (literary) conventions. Lawrence illustrates that the where cheap paper, signifier 'travel' can denote various signifieds. Postulates differences between male and female conventions of writing and behaviour, provides evidence from a number of texts (Mary Kingsley and Sarah Lee among others). Lobsien, Eckhard. 1981.

Landschaft in Texten: Zur Geschichte und Phänomenologie der literarischen Beschreibung . Stuttgart: Metzler. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. MacCannell, Dean. 1976. Prynne! [1999] The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class . New York: Schocken Books. Structuralist-semiotic study on tourism. MacCannell sees the tourist as a prototype of the modern human being (hunger for adventure, need for leisure time, superficiality). Sights are signifiers to which different signifieds can be assigned; they acquire a representative function.

Authenticity of sights is essay on all about myself produced and hester essay, serially reproduced in of a 5 paragraph essay the souvenir. Hester Punishment! Process of semantisation: sacrilization, framing and elevation, mechanical reproduction. Wide spectrum of tourist attractions: museums, parks, historical buildings, residential areas (e.g. Beverley Hills), shipyards, slums, garbage dumps (examples of the negative sides of tourism), ways of transport (tunnels, canals, bridges), business quarters, markets, population groups (e.g. Ems Resume! Amish people). Melchett, Sonia 1991. Passionate Quests: Five Modern Women Travellers . London. Heinemann. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topographies: A Spatial Reading of Sybil.

In: Joachim Frenk, ed. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Disraeli's novel serves as an example for illustrating the new experiences of space created by punishment, the possibility of railroad travelling (the account is based on Schivelbusch 1977, see below). Key words: mobility, speed, transportation of goods, communication, overcoming of distances, changes of landscape, gaining knowledge of ems resume different social areas. Mills, Sara. 1991. Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and Colonialism . Hester! London: Routledge. One of the first studies focusing on postcolonial issues from a feminist perspective (see also Ghose 1998).

Extensive methodological reflections on the discourse-theoretical approach (Foucault). Mills emphasises that travelling women should - just as men - be viewed in where the context of an prynne punishment imperialist ideology, yet they deal with it differently ( double-voiced discourse ). Mills provides a research report on travel literature and remarks on the previous neglect of female travellers. There are three case studies: Mary Kingsley, Alexandra David-Neel, Nina Mazuchelli. Morris, Mary. 1992.

Women and Journeys: Inner and Outer. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 25-32. Morris characterises female travelling and travel writing from her own perspective. Two types of travel plots are possible for women authors: either waiting for to buy paper, the stranger at home or searching for the strange abroad. Morris discusses women's inclination to enter a dialogic relationship with the punishment, foreign country, to bring in their own perception. Women prefer travelling in company, they are often in need of male protection. On the whole the study draws a somewhat simplistic picture of travelling women. Pelz, Annegret.

1993. Reisen durch die eigene Fremde: Reiseliteratur von Frauen als autobiographische Schriften . Köln: Böhlau. Pfister, Manfred. 1993. Intertextuelles Reisen, oder: Der Reisebericht als Intertext.

In: Herbert Foltinek, Wolfgang Riehle Waldemar Zacharasiewicz, eds. Tales and 'their telling difference': Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Narrativik . Festschrift Franz K. Stanzel. Essay On All About Myself! Heidelberg: Winter. The article refutes the myth of authenticity and shows the manifold intertextual networks of travel literature. Typology of intertextuality in travel literature. Repressed and negated intertextuality (blurring of punishment essay intertextual tracks; search for example of a 5 paragraph and effect, new, non-verbalised spaces), compiled intertextuality (excerpting travel guides and reports), homage paying intertextuality (visiting cult-places and quoting authorities), dialogic function of intertextuality (discussion of former travel traditions).

Pfister, Manfred Indira Ghose. 1996. Still Going Strong: The Loneliness of the Long Distance Traveller in Modern Travel Writing. Journal for the Study of hester essay British Culture 3.2: 149-163. Pratt, Marie Louise. 1992. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation . London: Routledge. Postcolonial approach. Deals with travel literature on South America and Africa 1750-1980. Shows different types of relations between two cultures: co-presence ( contact zone ), dominance of the conqueror's perspective ( colonial frontier ), seemingly innocent stance of the conqueror ( anti-conquest ), assimilation of the conquered ( autoethnographic ). An imperialistic attitude of conquest can also be expressed within Europe, e.g. through arrogance towards the stranger or through mental appropriation. Pratt includes rhetorical devices of imperialistic tendencies in travel literature: epithets and similes referring to the traveller's own country, aesthetisation of ems resume landscape according to native categories, elevated position with panoramic view, self-revaluation caused by a joy for discovery, exploiting the knowledge of the native guide.

Quadflieg, Helga. Essay! 2000. Kleine Fluchten: Isabella Bird und ihre Reisen nach Amerika. In: Querelles: Jahrbuch für Frauenforschung 2000. (Vol. 5: Grenzgängerinnen des moralischen Geschlechts ). Stuttgart: Metzler.

110-123. A case study of some of Isabella Bird's travel writings. Illustrates the double bind of the example of a 5 paragraph cause, female traveller in the 19th and essay, the beginning of the 20th century: tension between conventionality and freedom, affirmation and subversion of on all about myself existing norms (see also Forster 1990: Frederick, ed. 1991). Robinson, Jane. 1990.

Wayward Women: A Guide to Women Travellers . Oxford: Oxford UP. A bibliography of hester prynne essay women's travel writing listing approx. 400 authors. Entries contain brief biographical sketches, key words and synopses. Robinson provides bibliographical access to a comprehensive corpus of example texts, and thereby enables further research on female travel literature. Russel, Mary. [1986] 1996. The Blessings of a Good Thick Skirt: Women Travellers and hester punishment, Their World. London: Flamingo. Said, Edward. 1983.

Orientalism . New York: Random House. Schabert, Ina. 1997. Reisebücher: Die Frau in der Fremde. In: Ina Schabert. Englische Literaturgeschichte aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. 589-597.

Schäffter, Ortfried, ed. 1991. Das Fremde: Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Faszination und Bedrohung . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196. Schaff discusses the textuality of cities and their literary representation with respect to the different perspectives of male and female authors/characters. Examples: phallic conception of Florence as cultural space of essay explaining how macbeth use rhetoric to persuade masculinity (Lawrence), Venice as art-trophy (Ruskin) or as embodiment of the archetypal mother (Byron); Rome as unapproachable (for Dorothea in Middlemarch ), or as a symbol of triumphant conquest (Felicia Hemans).

Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1977. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Hester Punishment! Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M: Fischer. Authoritative study on travelling by railroad.

Focuses on: development of railway traffic in England, on the continent and in North America; the railroad's peculiarities as a means of public transport and merchandise transportation; the of a 5 paragraph and effect essay, change of the hester punishment, experience of space and time; economic, social and cultural aspects; Schivelbusch presents a (somewhat one-sided) critique of civilisation (alienation from nature). Schülting, Sabine. 1997. Wilde Frauen, Femde Welten: Kolonisierungsgeschichten aus Amerika . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Stannard, Martin. 1982. Debunking the Jungle: The Context of Evelyn Waugh's Travel Books 1930-9. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on essay on all myself, Travel Writing ): 105-126. Stevenson, Catherine Barnes. 1982. Victorian Women Travel Writers in Africa . Boston: Twayne.

Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982. Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. Punishment! [esp. 170-174] Tinling, Marion. 1989. Woman into the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and essay characters, Travelers . New York: Greenwood Press. Veit, Karin.

1997. Journey and Gender - Diversity of Travel Writing. In: Susanne Fender, ed. Feminist Contributions to the Literary Canon: Setting Standards of Taste . Leviston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press. 107-138. Veit examines gender-specific aspects of travelling and travel writing. Cites examples of women writers blurring the prynne essay, gender boundaries, i.e. exemplary travel texts depicting women who break away from their conventional female role. Essay! Examples of gender-specific discourses: the journey of Ella Maillart and punishment, Peter Fleming from Peking through the ems resume, Chinese province Sianking to Cashmere is told in two different texts (1936) representing a female and a male version; further examples are the two journeys to Russia undertaken by Susan Richards and Christopher Hope at the same time (1990). Veit's analysis confirms gender stereotypes, but also illustrates the double-voiced discourse of female travellers in prynne punishment their writings. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001.

Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of research on on all about, the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space.

Points of hester prynne punishment special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the imd business essays, body, movement in hester prynne essay space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Essay collection on essay, the socio-cultural context of modernism. Punishment! Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication.

Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Harris, Jose. 1994. Example Of A And Effect Essay! Private Lives and Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 . Hester Prynne Punishment Essay! Harmondsworth: Penguin. Study proceeding from to buy cheap paper, social history. Key words: demography, family, property, profession, religion, society and state, social theories. Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Kern, Stephen. 1983.

The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Lewis, Jane, Ed. Prynne Punishment! 1986. Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on imd business essays, women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. Lucas, John. 1997.

The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Prynne Punishment Essay! Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. How Macbeth Use Rhetoric To Persuade! Points out several aspects of society and prynne, discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors).

McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. Ems Resume! In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Mowat, John Loch. 1955.

Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. Hester Prynne Essay! Modernisms. Essay! A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan.

Study on the time between the two World Wars: the hester prynne punishment essay, 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history.

Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism.

Female artists. Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and the British People . Imd Business School! Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and punishment, perspectives. Study on female experience of the two World Wars. Special focus: women and profession.

Restraining of women from working in the time between the wars. Study provides detailed historical evidence: thoroughly investigated. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Where To Buy! Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Prynne! Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487.

Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from a women-centred perspective. Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995.

The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and 5 paragraph essay, cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gardiner, Juliet, ed.

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Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. Prynne Essay! In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994.

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Female artists. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Example! Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of prynne discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the where to buy cheap, ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in hester war literature. Where To Buy Paper! Critical reflection on the war and hester prynne punishment essay, women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. To Buy! Feminist pacifism.

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Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body . Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of goals California Press. Breger, Claudia Tobias Döring, eds. 1998. Figuren des/der Dritten: Erkundungen kultureller Zwischenräume . Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi. Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and hester prynne, the Subversion of Identity. New York, London: Routledge.

de Lauretis, Teresa. 1990. Myself! Eccentric Subjects: Feminist Theory and Historical Consciousness. Feminist Studies 16.1: 115-150. Dollimore, Jonathan. 1992. The Dominant and the Deviant: A Violent Dialectic. In:ed. Wayne R. Dynes Stephen Donaldson, eds.

Homosexual Themes in hester essay Literary Studies . New York: Garland. 87-100. Douglas, Mary. [1966] 1984. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of essay explaining how macbeth characters use rhetoric to persuade themselves Pollution and Taboo . London, etc.: Ark. Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York, Oxford: Oxford UP. Durkheim, Emile. [1893] 1996. Über soziale Arbeitsteilung. Studie über die Organisation höherer Gesellschaften. Frankfurt/M.

Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens . Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. Febvre, Lucien. 1990. 'Frontière - Wort und Bedeutung. In: Lucien Febvre. Das Gewissen des Historikers . Frankfurt/M. Hester Punishment! 27-36. Ferguson, Russell, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh-ha Cornel West, eds. 1990. Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures.

New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art Cambridge/Mass., London: The MIT Press. Finke, Laurie. 1986. The Rhetoric of Marginality: Why I Do Feminist Theory. Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 5.2: 251-72.

Foucault, Michel. [1963] 1988. Ems Resume! Zum Begriff der Übertretung. In: Michel Foucault. Schriften zur Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 69-89. Freud, Sigmund. [1919] 1994. Das Unheimliche. In: Sigmund Freud. Studienausgabe IV, Psychologische Schriften, ed.

Alexander Mitscherlich et al. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 241-274. Gregg, John. 1994. Maurice Blanchot and the Literature of Transgression. Princeton/New Jersey: Princeton UP. Hohnsträter, Dirk.

1999. Im Zwischenraum. Ein Lob des Grenzgängers. Prynne! In: Claudia Benthien Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. 231-244. Jervis, John. 1999. Transgressing the Modern: Explorations in the Western Experience of themselves Otherness . Oxford: Blackwell. Koschorke, Albrecht.

1990. Die Geschichte des Horizonts: Grenze und Grenzüberschreitung in literarischen Landschaftsbildern . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Kristeva, Julia. 1980. Powers of Horror. An Essay on prynne punishment, Abjection . New York, London: Routledge. Sargisson, Lucy. Example Of A And Effect Essay! 2000. Hester Prynne Essay! Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression.

London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit, Janet Price. 1999. Openings on the Body: A Critical Introduction. In: Janet Price Margrit Shildrick, eds. Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge.

1-14. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Essay Goals Example! Leaky Bodies and Boundaries. Feminism, Postmodernism and hester, (Bio)Ethics . London, New York: Routledge. Showalter, Elaine. To Buy Cheap Paper! 1985. Feminist Criticism in hester prynne punishment essay the Wilderness.

In: Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory . London: Virago, 243-270. Stallybrass, Peter Allan White, eds. 1986. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression . London: Methuen. Stevens, Hugh. 2000. Introduction: Modernism and its Margins.

In: Hugh Stevens Caroline Howlett, eds. Modernist Sexualities . Imd Business School! Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 1-12. Turner, Victor. 1967. Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Period in Rites de Passage . Hester Prynne Punishment Essay! In: Victor Turner. Where To Buy Paper! The Forest of essay Symbols . Essay! New York: Cornell UP. Van Gennep, Arnold. Hester Prynne! [1908] 1960. The Rites of Passage , trans. M.B.

Vizedom, G.L. Caffee. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Weigel, Sigrid. Example! 1990. Rekonstruktion und Relektüre: Die Arbeit von Frauen in der Literaturwissenschaft als Teil weiblicher Kulturkritik. In: Sigrid Weigel.

Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. 252-263. Butler, Judith. Hester! 1993. Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of 'Sex' . New York London: Routledge.

Diprose, Ros. 1994. The Bodies of Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference. Ems Resume! London: Routledge. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Sexualität und Wahrheit 1: Der Wille zum Wissen. 6th ed. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel.

1994. Überwachen und Strafen: Die Geburt des Gefängnisses . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1998. Über Hermaphrodismus: Der Fall Barbin , ed. Prynne Punishment! Wolfgang Schäffner Joseph Vogl. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1994. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Goals Example! Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Haraway, Donna.

1991. The Promises of hester punishment Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others. Characters To Persuade! In: L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, P. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies. London: Routledge. Herdt, Gilbert, ed. 1994. Hester Punishment! Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History . New York: Zone Books. Horner, Avril Angela Keane. 2000. Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality.

Manchester, New York: Manchester UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, Materialism, and Degeneration of the Fin de Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller Sally Shuttleworth, eds. 1990. Body/Politics: Women and the Discourses of Science. New York London: Routledge. Laqueur, Thomas. 1992. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud . Cambridge/Mass., London: Harvard UP. Price, Janet Margrit Shildrick, eds. 1999. Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge. Sargisson, Lucy.

2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and (Bio)Ethics . London: Routledge. Terry, Jennifer Jacqueline Urla, eds. 1995.

Deviant Bodies . Bloomington: Indiana UP. Brooks, J.A. 1982. Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Dinzelbacher, Peter, ed. 1993. Europäische Mentalitätsgeschichte: Hauptthemen in Einzeldarstellungen . Stuttgart: Kröner. Essay collection on goals, different experiences of hester prynne essay space from antiquity up to essay about, the present. Approach: history of hester prynne punishment essay mentality. Key words: experience of space as social, geographic, and cultural (fields of interest: religion, architecture etc.).

Space and aspects of conquering and opening up (of new rooms). Cyberspace. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Andere Räume. Imd Business! In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Reclam: Leipzig. 34-46. Article on space and otherness. Difference between normal and deviant spaces. Key words: heterotopias (hospitals, psychiatric clinics, prisons. ); spatial symbolism and prynne essay, history of mentality.

Frenk, Joachim, ed. 2000. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Aufsatzsammlung. Mentalitätsgeschichtlich bedingter Wandel von Raumvorstellungen in der englischen Literaturgeschichte. Besonderes Interesse der Postmoderne am Raum (Sozialgeographie, Kolonialismus, Datenflüsse um den Erdball, Cyberspace.) Fryer, Judith. Example And Effect Essay! 1984. Women and Space.

The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Study on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1995.

Space, Time and Perversion. Essays on the Politics of Bodies . London: Routledge. (esp. 103-124) Hauser, Susanne. 1990. Der Blick auf die Stadt: Semiotische Untersuchungen zur literarischen Wahrnehmung bis 1910 . Hester Essay! Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of essay explaining characters use rhetoric to persuade value judgements).

Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of prynne punishment Mass. Essay Goals Example! Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in prynne punishment essay texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism.

Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in about myself Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space. Documents historical changes of hester prynne punishment essay spatial concepts in modernity.

Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to paper, different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting).

Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation). Urban spaces. Prynne Punishment Essay! Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Kursbuch Stadt. Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Imd Business! Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Läpple, Dieter. Hester Prynne Punishment Essay! 1991. Gesellschaftszentriertes Raumkonzept: Zur Überwindung von physikalisch-mathematischen Raumauffassungen in der Gesellschaftsanalyse.

In: Martin Wentz, ed. Stadt-Räume . Frankfurt/M.: Campus. 35-46. Theoretical essay on different natures of space: Human-centred concepts of space vs. scientific concepts of space. Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines.

Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. On All Myself! Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Nowel, Ingrid. Hester Punishment! 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt.

Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources 3.2: 55-57. Schivelbusch, Wolfgang.

1979. Essays! Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Prynne Punishment! Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert . Frankfurt/M.: Ullstein. Historical study on space and time in the 19th century related to the development of the railway as a means of travel and essay myself, transport. Its influence on the perception of space and prynne essay, time. (Germany, England, USA). Sennett, Richard. Ems Resume! 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W. Norton.

Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of essay meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the ems resume, private in interior rooms. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and literature. Cultural-historical approach. Considers space: female allegorization of the city. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983.

The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity.

Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. Hester Punishment Essay! 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . Imd Business Essays! London: Routledge. Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and prynne punishment, sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Essay Characters Use Rhetoric To Persuade! Power relations connected with space. Benko, Georges Ulf Stohmeyer, eds.

1997. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. Collection of hester prynne essays. Approach: deconstructivist social geography - social space as a linguistic construct to be newly developed over and over by the individual. Where To Buy! Key words: Blurring of boundaries between mental and empirical spaces; spatial symbolism (described from a constructivist background and not from the usual arguments of social history or history of mentality). Duncan, Nancy, ed.

1996. Punishment Essay! Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms. Duncan, Nancy. 1996.

Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. MacDowell, Linda. 1996.

Spatializing Feminism. Essay! Geographic Perspectives. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Prynne Punishment Essay! Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 28-44. Article on a feminism and space. Approach: deconstructivist social geography. To Buy Cheap! Key words: socially conditioned and designed space, processes of placement, boundaries, centres and margins, changes of place and hester prynne essay, transgression of boundaries, space and identity. Reference to gender relations. Natter, Wolfgang John Paul Jones III.

1997. Example Of A And Effect Essay! Identity, Space, and Other Uncertainties. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Hester Essay! Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . School Essays! Oxford. Hester Essay! Blackwell. 141-161. Article on the volatile nature of space and identity. Approach. Deconstructivist social geography. Conception of space adapted from the conception of subject.

Constructivity and contingency of discursive concepts as means of social change. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke.

Rose, Gillian. 1996. Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of where Gender and hester prynne essay, Sexuality. London: Routledge. 56-74. Article on space and gender.

Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and example essay, gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalist allocation of meaning.

Barta, Peter I. 1990. Punishment! The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. Essay Explaining Use Rhetoric To Persuade Themselves! In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum.

310-315. Essay on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative textual structure. Space and identity. Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. Hester Punishment! In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287.

Study deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different spaces of the interior (factual and psychological ones). Berghahn, Daniela. 1988. Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on example, literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of prynne punishment essay Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H.

Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city.

Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Ems Resume! Archetypical aspects of space. Criticism: terminologically imprecise, appears rather essayistic. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage.

Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (compare Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (compare Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Hester Essay! Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures.

Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in goals Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. Hester Essay! The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. Imd Business School! 260-292.

Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer.

Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Fludernik, Monika. 1999. Carceral Topography: Spatiality, Liminality and Corporeality in the Literary Prison. Textual Practice 13.1: 43-77. Article on hester prynne punishment, space and identity.

Key words: boundaries; identity formation; spatial symbolism. Provides examples of texts. Füger, Wilhelm. 1984. Streifzüge durch Allotopia: Zur Topographie eines fiktionalen Gestaltungsraums. Anglia 102.3,4: 349-391. Article on space in imd business school essays the utopian genre. Hillebrand, Bruno von. 1975.

Poetischer, philosophischer, mathematischer Raum. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 417-463. Article on different spaces: geometrical space vs. textual space.

Narratological perspective on spatial representation (narratological background of the 1970s). Hoffmann, Gerhard. 1978. Raum, Situation, erzählte Wirklichkeit . Poetologische und historische Studien zum englischen und amerikanischen Roman. Stuttgart: Metzler. Authoritative text on narrative representation of space. Approach: phenomenological, structuralist and prynne punishment, semantic. Key words: different facets of where cheap space, i.e. visional space, space of action, atmospheric space (Ströker). Typology of narrated space based on subjectivity and hester prynne punishment essay, literary devices: curious space, grotesque space, gothic space etc. Allocation of example meaning to space. Archetypal space, forms of representation: panoramic space, tableau, scene.

Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Punishment Essay! Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Hunt, John Dixon. 1996. Paragone in Paradise: Translating the Garden. In: Elinor S. Shaffer, ed. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Of A 5 Paragraph Essay! Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Hester! 55-70.

Article on garden symbolism. Depicts the garden as a paradox combining nature with culture, preservation of the fleeting and the fragile. Jäger, Dietrich. Paper! 1998. Erzählte Räume. Studien zur Phänomenologie der epischen Geschehensumwelt . Würzburg: Könighausen Naumann. Study on prynne, the phenomenology of of a cause and effect narrative environments of action. Textual examples (predominantly German, but also some English) are viewed as variants of mimesis. Criticism: terminology is hester punishment essay imprecise and unsystematic, generally not up to the contemporary level of 5 paragraph cause and effect essay research. Kilian, Eveline.

2002. Exploring London. Hester Prynne! Walking the City - (Re)Writing the ems resume, City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to hester prynne, 2000 . London: Palgrave. 267-283.

Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and where to buy cheap paper, Gender in prynne Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters: Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary article on the phenomenon of simultaneity and essay explaining characters use rhetoric themselves, its implications concerning space and gender. Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Klein, Holger.

1990. Exploring Place and Space in Drama and in Fiction. Hester Punishment! In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and imd business essays, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the punishment essay, XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 174-181. Genre-theoretical essay on the nature of imd business essays space in drama and fiction.

Different spatial representations in drama and fiction: multi-sensory display of few places on stage vs. linguistic-evocative display of many places in narrative texts. Klotz, Volker. Prynne Essay! 1969. Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen.

München: Fink. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. Essay Myself! The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP.

Study on the role of hester punishment space in fiction. Contains multiple aspects of analysis. Key words: literary coining of space (topoi). Genre-specific variants. Space imagery (spatial allegories, spatial symbols). Expansion and movement. Time and its spatial component. Ems Resume! Characterisation through space. Historical and national particularities of space (placelessness in Modernism, wildering in American literature) Provides detailed textual evidence.

On the whole rather unsystematic, yet very stimulating. Maatje, Frank C. 1975. Versuch einer Poetik des Raumes. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in hester prynne der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 392-416. Revised article on space (1st version from 1965) providing a summary of the state of discussion at essay goals, the time. Refers to spatial symbolism and hester, the phenomenon of imd business school perspective. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter.

Manley, Lawrence. 1995. Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of hester prynne punishment essay Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds.

Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Myself! Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. Hester Essay! 232-256. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topography: A Spatial Reading of Sybil . In: Joachim Frenk, ed.

Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. 147-171. Article on the representation of space in Sybil. Analysis of the particular influence of school essays railway traffic on the perception of space in connection with the narrative structure of the text. Mitchel, W.J.T. Hester Punishment Essay! 1989. Space, Ideology, and Literary Representation. Poetics Today 10.1: 91-102.

Article on space in literature. Functional representation of example of a essay space: instrument of conveying ideology. Criticism: argument not quite clear. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and hester prynne punishment essay, nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in how macbeth characters use rhetoric to persuade novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Punter, David. 1979.

Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. Hester Prynne Essay! London: Roehampton Institute. 46-72. Reichel, Norbert. 1987. Der erzählte Raum: Zur Verflechtung von sozialem und poetischem Raum in der erzählenden Literatur . Darmstadt: WBG.

Study on the intermingling of social and poetic space. Space as bearer of meaning. Narrative representations of space are shown in the context of essay a history of mentality. Ritter, Alexander, ed. 1975. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG.

Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination. Heidelberg: Winter. Hester Prynne! 173-196. Article on the gendered nature of cities.

Key words: linguistic and literary conceptualization of cities with male or female connotations, gender-specific perspectives on cities. Application of gender stereotypes to cities. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the essay explaining how macbeth to persuade themselves, Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in hester punishment History, Art, and essay, Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51.

Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from essay, a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Of A 5 Paragraph And Effect! Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed.

1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the hester, XIIth Congress of the where to buy paper, International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. Hester Prynne Punishment! 1985.

Unreal City: Urban Experience in goals example Modern European Literature and Art. Hester Prynne Punishment Essay! Manchester: Manchester UP. Turner, James. 1979. The Politics of Landscape: Rural Scenery and Society in English Poetry 1630-1660 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on ems resume, spatial symbolism according to the poetological devices of the 17th century. Social space and literature. Aestheticizing of topography. Methods of symbolizing and allegorizing space. Influence of prynne essay landscape painting on literature in the 17th century.

Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Essay Characters To Persuade! Basingstoke: Macmillan. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen.

In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. Hester! 149-189. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001.

Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Introduces categories of conceptions and how macbeth characters use rhetoric, typologies of space. Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and hester punishment, its function as a reader's guide.

Provides literary examples. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Article on essays, the theory of subjectivity and identity. The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity.

Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Kahrmann, Cordula Gunter Reiß, Manfred Schluchter.

1977. Erzähltextanalyse: Eine Einführung in Grundlagen und Verfahren . 2 vols. Hester Essay! Kronberg: Athenäum. Study on the interpretation of ems resume narrative texts. Punishment! Representations of space are allocated to different textual levels of communication. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982.

Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Ems Resume! Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. Punishment! 145-188. [esp. How Macbeth Characters Use Rhetoric! 170-174] Essay collection on text analysis. Contains a brief part on the narratological description of space on the grounds of Hoffmann 1978 (see 2.3).

Ronen, Rose. 1986. Space in Fiction. Poetics Today 7: 421-438. Article on the phenomenon of hester punishment essay space and its characteristics in narrative texts. On All! Study is linguistically backed up. Categorisation of hester essay space in imd business school essays its relation to the perceiving and acting character (immediacy), degree of factuality. Functions of space: public and private, symbolic, means of characterisation. Integration in the spatial overall structure (topographic, semantic).

Stanzel, Franz. 1979. Theorie des Erzählens . Essay! Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. [ch. 5.2] Study on narratology. Foci: perspectival relation of objects to each other vs. non-perspectival naming of objects. In the example of a, 20th century: priority of perspectival representations of space: Subjectivity. Study on literary space and narratology.

Approach: structuralist/semiotic text analysis (Lotman). Text as a spatial structure. Semantic functions of space: convey conceptions of the world, archetypal notion of prynne verticality and horizontality, distance and closeness, setting and transgressing boundaries. Segmenting function of paper literary representations of space. Selectivity of representation of punishment essay space.

Depiction of time through space. Generally a universalist notion of space. Lotman, Jurij. 1972. Die Struktur literarischer Texte . München: Fink. Theoretical study on the structure of literary texts. Semiotic/structuralist concept of literary space as a model of cultural rooms. Universalist allocations of meaning, depiction of oppositional spaces. Sappok, Christian. 1970. Die Bedeutung des Raumes für die Struktur des Erzählwerks . Aufgezeigt an Beispielen aus der polnischen Erzählliteratur . München: Otto Sagner.

Structuralist/semiotic approach to space and narrative traditions. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . London: Routledge.

Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of essay space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and hester prynne, sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of imd business essays gender identity and hester prynne punishment, deviation from essays, gender norms. Duncan, Nancy. 1996. Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and hester, family. Key words: homosexuality (male and about, female); prostitution. Friedman, Susan Stanford. Hester Prynne Punishment Essay! 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse. Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Ems Resume! Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press. Hester Prynne! 109-136.

Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Essay on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography.

Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997. Postmodern Becomings: From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality. Myself! In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and prynne punishment, Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323.

Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from essay, a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Higonnet, Margaret R. Prynne! Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Explaining How Macbeth Characters Themselves! Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Hester Prynne! Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on ems resume, the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical.

Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts. Hester Punishment Essay! Marginalisation, transgression of ems resume boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of hester punishment development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Rose, Gillian. 1996.

Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 56-74. Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on essay on all about myself, Luce Irigaray. Sizemore-Wick, Christine.

1989. A Female Vision of the City. London in the Novels of Five British Women . Prynne Punishment Essay! Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spain, Daphne. Essay Myself! 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from social geography.

Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of punishment essay public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on ems resume, gender topographies and literature. Prynne Punishment! Proceeding from cultural history. Essay On All About! Considers Space: female allegorization of the city. Philosophical study on space. Phenomenological approach. Prynne! Had a major influence on the treatment of space in literary criticism. Compare Hoffmann 1978 (3.3), and others.

Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalistic allocation of meaning. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of example of a 5 paragraph cause and effect essay Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for essay, women - a place of maternal security for how macbeth characters use rhetoric themselves, men.

Erikson, Erik. 1970. Womanhood and Inner Space. Prynne Punishment! In: Identity. Youth and Crisis . London: Faber Faber. 261-294. Article on womanhood and inner space. Imd Business School Essays! Psychological approach, supported by hester prynne, evidence from ethnic studies.

Investigates the play of children as a confirmation of traditional gender differences. Milgram, Stanley. 1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Essay! Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Article on interior space. Approach: psychoanalytical, feminist. Key words: psychological places of the interior; interpersonal spaces of (human) relationship; psychoanalytical symbolization, space imagery, female subjectivity; Separateness and integrity. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy.

1997. Postmodern Becomings. From the Space of Form to the Space of punishment essay Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323.

Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Gregory, Derek. 1997. Lacan and Geography: The Production of Space Revisited. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds.

Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. Essay Use Rhetoric To Persuade! 203-234. Article on psychoanalytical space. Key words: bodily experience of space (pre-lingual/premature), experience of space and formation of identity through entering the symbolic order, discursive dependency.

Winzen, Matthias. 2000. Hysterisierte Räume. In: Silvia Eibelmayr et al., eds. Die verletzte Diva: Hysterie, Körper, Technik in der Kunst der 20. Hester Prynne Essay! Jahrhunderts . Where To Buy! Köln: Oktagon. 154-178. Article on space and hystericalization.

Foci: paradoxical intermingling of movement and stiffness. Loss of orientation and expressivity. Sudden removal of subject-object relations in art and prynne punishment essay, photography. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Smitten, Jeffrey M. Ann Dagistany, eds. 1981. Spatial Form in Narrative . Ithaca, New York.

Study theorizes text as space. Describes textual structures with the help of spatial metaphors. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the where cheap, experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements). Jackendoff, Ray Barbara Landau. 1992. Spatial Language and Spatial Cognition. Hester Prynne Punishment! In: Language of the Mind: Essays on Mental Represenation . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 99-124. Article postulates the superiority of the concrete image of an ems resume perceived object over its verbal representation.

Based on cognitive linguistics. Tuan, Yi-Fu. Prynne Punishment Essay! 1974. Ems Resume! Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and prynne, Values. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Wagener-Wender, Monika. 1993. Mentale Repräsentation räumlicher Informationen.

Bonn: Holos. Study on space from a perspective of cognitive psychology. Point of interest: cognitive-psychological processes are manifested in the linguistic representation of essay space. Bourdieu, Pierre. Hester Prynne Essay! 1966. Champ intellectuel et project créateur. Explaining Characters Use Rhetoric! Les Temps Modernes 246: 865-906.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1974. Zur Soziologie der Symbolischen Formen . Prynne Essay! Trans. Example! Wolfgang Fietkau. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1983.

The Field of Cultural Production, or: The Economic World Reversed. Poetics 12: 311-56. Bourdieu, Pierre. [1984] 1988. Homo Academicus . Cambridge Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1985. The Genesis of the Concepts of Habitus and of Field . Sociocriticism 2: 11-24. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature , ed.

Randal Johnson. Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Rules of Art . Hester Essay! Cambridge: Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. La Domination Masculine . Paris: Seuil. Bürger, Peter. Ems Resume! 1986. Adorno, Bourdieu and the sociology of literature.

Stanford Literary Review : 75-90. Calhoun, Craig, Edward LiPuma Moishe Postone, eds. 1993. Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives . Prynne Punishment! Cambridge: Polity. Dörner, Andreas Ludgera Vogt. 1990. Kultursoziologie (Bourdieu - Mentalitätengeschichte - Zivilisationstheorie). In: Klaus Michael Bogdal, ed. Neue Literaturtheorien . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 131-153.

Dubois, Jaques. On All Myself! 2000. Pierre Bourdieu and Literature. SubStance 93: 84-102. Eder, Klaus, ed. 1989. Klassenlage, Lebensstil und kulturelle Praxis: Beiträge zur Auseinandersetzung mit Pierre Bourdieus Klassentheorie . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Fischer, Ludwig Klaas Jarchow.

1987. Die soziale Logik der Felder und das Feld der Literatur. Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 25: 164-172. An introductory essay to a whole issue on Bourdieu's sociology of culture in which the authors clarify and defend Bourdieu's key terminology - especially the concepts of field and habitus. Fowler, Bridget. 1997. Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Theory: Critical Investigations . London: Sage. A very perceptive and prynne punishment essay, insightful study of Bourdieu's writings on the cultural field with a special emphasis on literature. She even offers a gender-related discussion of to buy cheap modernist British literature from a Bourdieusian perspective (chapter 6) which unfortunately remains somewhat superficial and does not reflect the latest research in this area. This partly has to hester, do with the fact that Fowler is more interested in revaluating 'middlebrow' women's writing than in a discussion of neglected modernist women writers. Fowler Bridget, ed.

2000. Reading Bourdieu on Society and Culture . Oxford: Blackwell. Garnham, Nicholas Raymond Williams. Imd Business School! 1980. Hester Punishment! P. Bourdieu and the Sociology of Culture: An Introduction. Media, Culture and Society 2: 209-223. Gebauer, Gunter. 1994. Bourdieus Hermeneutik. lendemains 75/76: 27-40. Gebauer, Gunter Christoph Wulf, eds. 1993.

Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Example! Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Harker, Richard et. al., eds. 1990. An Introduction to hester prynne essay, the Work of Pierre Bourdieu: The Practice of Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Honneth, Axel.

1984. Die zerrissene Welt der symbolischen Formen: Zum kultursoziologischen Werk Pierre Bourdieus. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 36: 147-164. Jarchow, Klaas Hans-Gerd Winter. 1993. Pierre Bourdieus Kultursoziologie als Herausforderung der Literaturwissenschaft. In: Gunter Gebauer Christoph Wulf, eds. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 93-134.

Jenkins, Richard. 1992. Pierre Bourdieu . London New York: Routledge. Jurt, Joseph. 1979. Für eine Rezeptionssoziologie. RZLG 3: 214-231. Jurt, Joseph. 1994.

Für eine Wissenschaft der Genese kultureller Werke: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion des literatursoziologischen Ansatzes von Pierre Bourdieu in Les règles de l'art . Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 231: 319-347. Jurt, Joseph. 1995. Das literarische Feld: Das Konzept Pierre Bourdieus in Theorie undPraxis . Imd Business School Essays! Darmstadt: WBG. Jurt, Joseph. 1997. Hester Essay! Bourdieus Analyse des literarischen Feldes oder der Universalitätsanspruch des sozialwissenschaftlichen Ansatzes. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 22.2: 152-180. Jurt offers a defense of Bourdieu's concept of the (literary) field against critics who regard it as too economically oriented and as interactionist. Instead he conceives of the model as constructivist, offering a wide range of inderdisciplinary possibilies. Moreover, he points out that it enables both a synchronic and imd business school, a diachronic analysis of the structure of the production, publication, and reception of punishment essay literature.

Jurt, Joseph. 2000. Pierre Bourdieus Theorie des Literarischen Feldes. In: Derek Robbins, ed. Pierre Bourdieu , vol. 2. London etc.: Sage. 117-147. Lane, Jeremy F. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu: A Critical Introduction . On All! London: Pluto Press. McClean, Ian. 1993.

Bourdieu's field of hester essay cultural production. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 241-251. Moi, Toril. 1991. Appropriating Bourdieu: Feminist Theory and Pierre Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture. New Literary History 22: 1017-1049. Moi, Toril. 1997. The Challenge of the Particular Case: Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture and Literary Criticism.

Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 497-508. Paulson, William. 1997. The Market of Printed Goods: On Bourdieu's Rules. Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 399-415. Pinto, Louis. 1996.

The Theory of Fields and the Sociology of Literature: Reflections on the Work of Pierre Bourdieu. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 33.2: 171-86. Pinto, Louis Franz Schultheis, eds. 1997. Streifzüge durch das literarische Feld: Texte von Pierre Bourdieu, Christophe Charle, Mouloud Mammeri, Jean-Michel Péru, Michael Pollak, Anne-Marie Thiesse . Konstanz: Universitätsverlag Konstanz. van Rees, Cees J. 1983a. Imd Business School! Advances in the Empirical Sociology of hester Literature and the Arts: The Institutional Approach.

Poetics 12: 285-310. van Rees, Cees J. 1983b. How a Literary Work Becomes a Masterpiece: On the Threefold Selection Practised by Literary Criticism. Poetics 12: 397-417. van Rees, Cees J. 1987. How reviewers reach consensus on the value of literary works.

Poetics 16: 275-94. van Rees, Cees J. 1989. 5 Paragraph And Effect Essay! The Institutional Foundation of a Critic's Connoisseurship. Poetics 18: 179-98. Robbins, Derek. 1991. The Work of Pierre Bourdieu: Recognizing Society . Milton Keynes: Open University.

A short and at times rather simplistic survey of Bourdieu's work in chronological order designed as an introduction for hester prynne essay, students. Robbins covers Bourdieu's major publications from Sociology d'Algerie to La Noblesse d'Etat , but only marginally touches on his literary sociological works. Robbins, Derek. 2000. Bourdieu and Culture. London etc: Sage. de Saint Martin, Monique. 1990. Les 'femmes écrivains et le champ littéraire. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 83: 52-56. Schwingel, Markus.

1993. Analytik der Kämpfe: Macht und Herrschaft in der Soziologie Bourdieus . How Macbeth Themselves! Hamburg: Argument Verlag. Schwingel, Markus. 1997. Kunst, Kultur und Kampf um Anerkennung: Die Literatur- und Kunstsoziologie Pierre Bourdieus in ihrem Verhältnis zur Erkenntnis- und Kultursoziologie. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur 22.2: 109-151. A useful overview of the hester prynne, central aspects of Bourdieu's sociology of culture. Schwingel shows in on all how far the concepts of the field and habitus are the essential building blocks of an extensive model not only of the sociology of culture but, ultimately, of a genereal sociology.

Shiagh, Morag. 1993. 'Cultural studies' and hester essay, the work of Pierre Bourdieu. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 213-223. Verdaasdonk, Hugo. 1989. Literary Magazines as Media for Publishing Literary Texts. Poetics 18: 215-32. Assmann, Aleida Jan Assmann.

1987. Kanon und Zensur als kultursoziologische Kategorien. In: Aleida Assmann Jan Assmann, eds. Kanon und Zensur: Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation II . München: Fink. 7-27. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971. The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell.

Bürger, Peter. 1974. Theorie der Avantgarde . Goals! Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. [ Theory of the Avant-Garde . Trans. Michael Shaw. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1984] Bürger, Peter. 1985/1986. The Institution of 'Art' as a Category in the Sociology of Literature.

Cultural Critique 2: 5-33. Bürger, Peter, ed. Prynne Essay! 1978. Seminar: Kunst- und Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Cultural Studies 4. 1973. (Special issue on Literature/society: mapping the field)

Desan, Phillippe, Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson Wendy Griswold, eds. 1989. Literature and Social Practice . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Fügen, Hans Norbert. 1966. Of A Cause Essay! Die Hauptrichtungen der Literatursoziologie . Bonn: Bouvier. Gaiser, Gottlieb.

1983. Zur Empirisierung des Kanonbegriffs. SPIEL 2: 123-35. Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1993. Hester Punishment Essay! Literaturgeschichte und literarische Institutionen: Zu einer Pragmatik der Literatur . Essay Myself! Meitingen: Verlag Literatur + Wissenschaft. Gedin, Per. 1977.

Literature in the Marketplace . London: Faber. Griswold, Wendy. 1987. The Fabrication of Meaning: Literary Interpretation in hester punishment essay the United States, Great Britain, and the West Indies. American Journal of Sociology 92: 1077-1117. von Hallberg, Robert, ed.

1984. Ems Resume! Canons . Chicago: Chicago UP. Lepenies, Wolf. 1985. Die drei Kulturen: Soziologie zwischen Literatur und Wissenschaft . Hester Prynne! München: Hanser. Poggioli, Renato. 1968. The Theory of the Avant-Garde . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Rogers, Mary F. 1991. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature . Albany: State University of New York Press. Sanders, Hans.

1981. Example Cause And Effect Essay! Institution Literatur und Roman: Zur Rekonstruktion der Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Scharfschwerdt, Jürgen. 1977. Hester Punishment! Grundprobleme der Literatursoziologie: Ein wissenschaftsgeschichtlicher Überblick . Stuttgart etc.: Kohlhammer.

Schenck, Celeste M. 1989. Exiled by Genre: Modernism, Canonicity, and the Politics of Exclusion. In: Mary Lynn Broe Angela Ingram, eds. Women's Writing in where Exile . Hester Prynne Punishment! Chapel Hill: University of ems resume North Carolina Press. 226-250. Viala, Alain. 1988. Prismatic Effects.

Critical Inquiry 14: 563-573. Voßkamp, Wilhelm. 1977. Gattungen als literarisch-soziale Institutionen: Zu Problemen sozial- und funktionsgeschichtlich orientierter Gattungstheorie und -historie. In: Walter Hinck, ed. Textsortenlehre - Gattungsgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 27-44. Wasserstrom, William. 1962. T.S.

Eliot and The Dial . Sewanee Review 70.1: 81-92. Wolff, Janet. [1981] 1993. The Social Production of Art . London: Macmillan.

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Essay on Hester Prynne Sin Punishment Puritan

The “Myth” of Unity: A Response to a 2009 Address Given at St Vladimir’s Seminary. This article was originally published on OrthodoxyToday.org. ABSTRACT: Last year, a symposium entitled The Council and hester prynne punishment the Tomos: 20th Century Landmarks Towards a 21st Century Church , was held at St Vladimir’s Seminary (Crestwood, June 18-20, 2009). One of the speakers, Matthew Namee, presented an on all about myself expanded version of a paper he delivered the previous year at the Orthodox Theological Society in hester prynne punishment, America. His paper was titled, “The Myth of Unity and the Origins of Jurisdictional Pluralism in North America.” Namee expanded an earlier thesis to essay, argue that the story of the Russian Mission and punishment essay the implicit unity it fostered in the early years of the Orthodox presence in of a and effect essay, America was largely mythical. Rather, the hester punishment essay, history is one of jurisdictional rivalry and division from which we can draw little or no guidance for our present situation or the future. Namee implicitly issued a challenge: Which historical narrative that describes the Orthodoxy presence in America is correct? Is it the how macbeth themselves, Russian Mission narrative which prescribes a Church guided by the Orthodox missionary imperative? Or is it the narrative of ethnic protection that has little interest in engaging American society and culture? The resolution of prynne punishment essay, this question will impact the future of Orthodoxy in America.

Will American Orthodoxy become a local church in goals example, the canonical tradition of hester essay, mission-minded Orthodoxy, or will it remain divided by ethnic interests, essentially a Balkanized entity subject to overseas leadership and political interests? What follows is my response. I. Introduction: The “Creation Myth” of American Orthodoxy. Recently, an example of a essay insightful analysis on the origins of American Orthodoxy was given at St Vladimir’s Seminary in hester prynne punishment, Crestwood, New York. It was presented by essay goals example, a well-respected authority on American Orthodox history, Matthew Namee, a resident scholar at the Society for Orthodox Christian History in America (SOCHA). Namee’s thesis is that there was never a “golden age” of administrative unity and thus the primatial claims of the Orthodox Church in hester prynne punishment, America (OCA) which is the direct descendant of the original Russian missionary diocese are invalid. As such, the various ethnic jurisdictions are themselves under no obligation to goals example, submit to the claims of the Orthodox Church in America. Namee’s final conclusion is that despite the present administrative disunity, we are in fact more united than we have ever been.

To his great credit, Namee declares that despite this newer understanding of American Orthodoxy’s origins, he has always been a “passionate supporter” of administrative unity and continues to hester prynne punishment essay, remain so today. 5 Paragraph Cause. 1. To support this analysis, the importance of the year 1917 is minimized. As is hester well known, this is the date considered by many to be the end of essay about, Orthodox unity in America. That year the Bolsheviks succeeded in overthrowing the prynne punishment essay, Romanov dynasty, thereby ending the subsidies of the example 5 paragraph cause and effect essay, Russian Orthodox Church to its diocese in North America. Instead, we are told that the first Greek parishes in the United States were already “independent” and that as far as the other ethnic parishes were concerned, “cracks and fissures” appreared previous to the final rupture in 1917. As such, 1908 is proffered as a watershed year, since that was when the Ecumenical Patriarchate (under duress from its Ottoman overlords) transferred its parishes in the United States to the Church of Greece thereby ostensibly uniting the Greek-Americans into a new, independent ethnic jurisdiction. (As we shall see, this act was resolutely ignored by punishment essay, a significant majority of the Greek parishes in the United States.) Left unanswered in this newer narrative are several questions.

It is the intention of this essay to ask these questions and examine these claims as critically and as impartially as possible. The Primacy of the Russian Mission. Namee’s research is diligent; the facts as laid out essay goals are impressive. Prynne Punishment. Indeed, I used many of these same sources for my own book, The American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings . 2 It is imd business essays probable that there is no more knowledgeable historian of American Orthodox history than Namee (as noted by Fr John Erickson, who introduced him at the conference). Certainly his sources are more voluminous than those which my coauthor and myself had access to. The quarrel therefore is not with the facts, but with the interpretation of hester punishment, these facts.

More disturbingly, his analysis evinces a seeming unconcern with the ecclesiological ramifications of the canonical chaos (willful as it often was) for the rival jurisdictions that arose out of them. It is my contention that the original thesis, that is to say, the primacy of the where to buy paper, Russian Mission and its internal administrative unity still stands. Furthermore, it was canonical in all its particulars, something that cannot be said of the prynne punishment, incipient ethnic jurisdictions. Therefore the question is: Were these ethnic parishes outside the ecclesiastical norms? I will endeavor to examine only the essay myself, evidence that Namee provides in order to attempt an answer. At the risk of belaboring the prynne essay, point, we can state categorically that there already was an established local church in North America and that its internal unity and adherence to canonical norms was beyond dispute. It was recognized not only by the established Orthodox patriarchates, but by imd business school, secular authorities in America as well. As shall be demonstrated in this response, the punishment essay, Russian missionary diocese (henceforth called the Russian Mission) functioned as a coherent diocese, one recognized the ems resume, world over as an integral part of the hester punishment essay, Russian Orthodox Church, whose bishops were fully integrated into the life of essay about, that church and who was dependent upon it for material support. Such support included stipends for prynne, priests, monies for properties and the erection of churches and donations of to persuade, liturgical items. It should be noted at this point that in stark contrast to the Russian Orthodox Church, no other foreign Orthodox patriarchate provided any means of support to their emigres or financially assisted any immigrant priests that came to the New World.

Instead, many of these same immigrants received support from the hester prynne punishment essay, Russian Mission. Russian Church in Sitka, AK – 1895. The origins of the Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Diocese of America, the official name of this diocese, can be traced to 1794, to essay about myself, Sitka, Alaska, when eight Russian monks from Valaam monastery established the hester prynne, original mission. Among these men included future saints such Juvenaly and ems resume Herman. Its purpose was to evangelize the natives and not merely to care for the pastoral needs of the Russian colonists. Indeed, at great personal risk to themselves, they often ignored the prynne punishment essay, dictates of the Russian colonial administration and conducted mass baptisms of entire native villages, an act which conferred a degree of political protection on them, most especially from the depredations of the Russian colonial government. From the example, efforts of this this original mission natives, such as Peter the Aleut and Jacob Netsvetov arose and have been added to the roster or glorified saints. More to the point, all of its bishops stand in a direct line of succession from punishment St Innocent (who later became Metropolitan of Moscow). Essay How Macbeth Use Rhetoric To Persuade Themselves. Moreover, its administrative integrity was real and its primacy was recognized by all, including many of the non-Russian ethnic groups who set up their own parishes outside of essay, its purview.

It was the goals, local established Church. To be sure, some one hundred years later, immigrants from traditionally Orthodox countries started making their presence known. Independent noises were certainly being heard at least in hester punishment essay, certain precincts. Even in light of actual independence of some parishes from the Russian missionary diocese, the situation was far from static as some of imd business essays, these parishes transferred their allegiances to the Russian Mission at various times and for various reasons. Hester Prynne Essay. It is imd business school noteworthy that not once did a Russian Mission parish transfer its allegiance to any of the newer jurisdictions . As noted, liturgical items were even accepted by some of those parishes that remained independent of the Russian Mission. Be that as it may, the number of hester, these independent parishes was small in comparison to the overall size of the Russian missionary diocese. Ems Resume. Indeed, by the time of the creation of the first ethnic exarchates in prynne punishment essay, the 1920s, the Russian missionary diocese contained over ems resume, three-quarters of all Orthodox parishes in North America.

3 Therefore, I contend that in almost all of particulars, the argument of a normative hyper-independence (for want of a better phrase) from the Russian Mission is debatable. That schism from the Russian Mission erupted at various times is hester prynne punishment essay not debatable, neither is the fact that many parishes were set up outside its purview; instead the questions that should be asked are whether such actions were (1) canonical, and (2) if they were widespread. Essay Example. It is this author’s contention that such actions were neither canonical nor in the grand scheme of things, that widespread. Let us therefore begin. First, Namee argues that “Orthodox Christians in America today are largely united.” The key word here is “largely.” Depending on where one lives, one can just as easily state that we are “largely divided.” For example in 2007 the GOA Metropolitan of Boston issued a ban on his clergy preventing them from associating and concelebrating with members of the OCA a ban which is still in force. 4 Metropolitan Philip Saliba of the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of hester prynne essay, America (AOA) jurisdiction for essay myself, his part has banned his clergy from prynne concelebrating with priests of the newly created Palestinian “vicariate” of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (GOA). 5 Recently, the of a 5 paragraph cause essay, general secretary of the Holy Synod in Istanbul, gave a scathing speech at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of prynne punishment, Theology, in which he castigated two of the essay on all myself, primates of other jurisdictions and even slandered the OCA as as “barely canonical.” 6 He then went on to lament the state of Orthodoxy in America, parish life in general, and hester prynne punishment the Athonite monasteries recently implanted here, among other things. On All About Myself. His The Secretary’s most startling claim however was that the Ecumenical Patriarchate enjoyed universal jurisdiction and thus, North America should be subjugated to a metropolitan of its choosing. Though his speech was ill received at punishment essay Holy Cross, the faculty of that school recently posted a statement on the prerogatives of the Ecumenical Patriarchate and its claims to extra-territorial domination based on an arguable reading of Canon 28 of Chalcedon. 7 In other words, the faculty essentially agreed with the broad thrust of the original speech albeit in a more restrained and thoughtful manner.

Interestingly enough, this statement was unsigned. Other examples of imd business essays, disunity and noxious sentiments abound. In an issue of The Orthodox Observer , Fr Mark Arey stated that the GOA was “the [only] canonical jurisdiction in America.” 8 Ironically, Arey is the general secretary of the prynne essay, Standing Council of Canonical Orthodox Bishops in America (SCOBA). Chicanery is ems resume also not beyond the pale: In order to increase the prynne essay, number of Constantinopolitan eparchies in North America, a special Albanian exarchate was created, consisting of two parishes. (The Albanian diocese of the OCA by contrast has 14 parishes.) For good measure, the essay on all about myself, Georgian Orthodox Church recently announced the creation of a metropolitan for its one, lone parish in Brooklyn. Hester Punishment Essay. Recently, during an official visit in the United States, the Ecumenical Patriarch distorted the origins of Orthodoxy’s beginnings in North America when he completely ignored the entire Russian missionary experience.

9 Rather, he lauded the New Smyrna plantation as the fons et origo of Orthodoxy in North America, even though the vast majority of its population was not Orthodox Christian, its only priest was Roman Catholic, and no Orthodox mission resulted. In any event the plantation withered away and its denizens merged into the majority population, leaving no traces of Hellenism behind. All of the incidents of essay, intra-Orthodox rivalry described above took place within the past few years. Prynne. None of this would strike the casual observer that the Orthodox Church in America is “largely united.” Indeed, estrangement would be not too strong a word. As examples of inter-Orthodox cooperation, we are told by Namee “#133;that various Orthodox churches have banded together to form elementary schools, nursing homes, and soup kitchens.” A Google search for examples of such endeavors at imd business essays present has not yielded any results as of yet. Although to my mind they would be welcome, the fact of their apparent scarcity should lead one to hester prynne essay, adopt a more humble attitude regarding local pan-Orthodox cooperation especially in the philanthropic field. To be sure, the IOCC and the OCMC do admirable and 5 paragraph cause and effect much-lauded work, principally in the international arena. However, these are examples of national ministries sponsored by SCOBA, not individual parishes located in the same city, working in cooperation with each other and pooling their parochial resources.

As for hester prynne, domestic charitable work, the recently created Fellowship of Orthodox Christians United to Serve (FOCUS) is receiving less than full support from SCOBA, most probably due to intra-jurisdictional rivalry. 10. Namee does not shy from taking high-ranking members of his own (Antiochian) jurisdiction to task for propagating this supposed “myth” of unity. 11 That being said, the very hinge of this argument falls apart when he states, “#133;that from its earliest days in America, Orthodoxy was characterized by ethnic separation.” Let us ignore briefly whether this is essays desirable or even canonical. This argument in toto rests on this one phrase: “from its earliest days.” But what is hester prynne punishment meant by 5 paragraph, “earliest days”? Any objective assessment of the North American church would have to begin from the actual inception of Orthodoxy in prynne punishment, North America, that is from 1794. Unfortunately the first century of American Orthodoxy is to buy cheap paper elided over almost completely without comment. The Alaskan experience is resolutely ignored and/or marginalized.

The martyrdom of the first native American martyr (Peter the hester punishment essay, Aleut) in California no less(!) is not mentioned at all. The historic and imd business massive outreach to prynne punishment essay, the Carpatho-Russians, Galicians, and Ukrainians (the “Uniates”) is given remarkably short shrift. Nor are the non-Russian immigrant parishes of various ethnicities that were founded or supported by the Russian Mission given much consideration. The founding of Russian immigrant parishes and imd business essays diocesan institutions likewise passes with only minimal comment. In reading this author’s paper, one gets the decided impression that only independent Greek parishes were being founded in the United States. Unfortunately we are not told that the majority of these independent parishes were originally founded as ethnic social clubs, as stated by no less an authority than Metropolitan Isaiah Chronopoulos of Denver, 12 a bishop of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese. Others such as the Greek community of hester prynne essay, Galveston, Texas were founded in schism from already established Russian Mission parishes (in this case, a Serbian parish). That most of the Greek parishes were formed due to brazen acts of schism and other canonical irregularities largely passes without comment. One could be forgiven for ems resume, getting the impression that such unfortunate acts are canonically inconsequential. Instead, we are comforted by the fact that Holy Chrism was being received from both the Church of Greece and the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Left unsaid is whether such nonchalance oversights are is ecclesiologically normal or even if it is canonically valid.

Unfortunately, Namee contradicts himself and essay equivocates on some important points. The author writes that “#133;unity can have a variety of essay example, meanings.” How to square his statement that “all Orthodox churches are united on doctrine and sacraments,” in light of another of his observations wherein we are told that “#133;discipline with regard to hester prynne punishment, marriage, ordination, and the reception of converts can and often does differ”? Moreover, it is a stretch to essays, say that all jurisdictions hold to the same “moral teachings.” The GOA for example lauded two Orthodox Senators of Greek extraction who upheld President Clinton’s veto of the partial birth abortion ban passed by Congress a practice that is so ghastly that presently only two doctors in America perform it. Indeed, the silence from many jurisdictions in this matter is nothing less than scandalous. Likewise, the question of membership in Freemasonry for Orthodox Christians is far from settled across the spectrum of American Orthodoxy. In certain Antiochian parishes in the Upper Midwest, it was reliably reported that Muslim relatives of Orthodox Christians have regularly communed and have even served on parish councils. 13 No doubt there are other examples of variances in moral standards, all of which calls into question the contention that “all jurisdictions” share the same “moral teachings.” As to English being the “lingua franca” of Orthodox liturgies, a careful examination would indicate that such a statement is not necessarily borne out by the facts as presented. The study cited indicates that out hester prynne essay of over 2,100 parishes in the United States, only 345 were sampled and of these, 74 percent stated that English was their “primary liturgical language.” From personal experience, I can safely state that regarding this issue alone, the range of responses within a single parish can vary dramatically.

The reason is because for many it is a volatile issue, one having to do with an individual parishioner’s self-identity as a member of an ethnic group which for many is the sine qua non of Orthodox identity. Therefore, even if the universe of responses were more in line with the actual number of churches, I would still be reticent about making categorical statements regarding which is the “primary” language that is in fact being used in most American Orthodox churches. III. The “Creation Myth” Its Origins and ems resume the Facts. Where then did the “creation myth” come from? The author cites The Orthodox Church by Timothy Ware and Orthodox America, 1794-1976: Development of the hester, Orthodox Church in America by Alexander Schmemann. As for the culprits who ruptured this unity (according to this narrative), he identifies the usual suspects, the Bolsheviks and Archbishop Meletius Metaxakis (later to be Patriarch Meletius IV of Constantinople). The question unanswered is imd business where did Ware and Schmemann acquire this narrative; one which can best be described as unity followed by rupture? After all, neither Ware nor Schmemann made it up out of whole cloth. A partial answer can be found in the author’s own biography, wherein he writes that he “grew up believing what [he now terms] the hester prynne, ‘myth of unity.’” In other words, it was a belief that was au courant in ems resume, Orthodox circles throughout North America. (I can attest to this fact based on my own personal experience.

14 ) It was only by prynne punishment, his own research that he came to the conclusion that this was never the case, a “fact” which caused him “no small measure of disappointment.” How then did we arrive at this point, to believe in paper, two diametrically opposed narratives? It is hester essay my contention that despite the best of scholarly intentions, what is essay about being proposed here is a counter-myth, perhaps unwittingly; but nonetheless one which has dire implications for the future of Orthodoxy in hester punishment, America. As noted, this newer narrative is based on a different interpretation of the same facts and a regrettable ignorance of others. One of the elements of essay how macbeth themselves, this counter-myth is the present Constantinopolitan claims of proteia or primacy which by rights supposedly belong to the GOA alone, since it is the major eparchy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in North America. Although the author does not propagate this startling claim nor give it any credence in his own analysis, it does have its proponents and at present it is tightly interwoven with arguments of those who castigate the “creation myth” to essay, justify their claims.

One of these critics is the aforementioned Arey, who boldly asserts that “the myth of school, a unified Orthodox Church in punishment essay, the Western Hemisphere prior to imd business school, the Bolshevik Revolution of hester prynne, 1917 needs to be debunked by imd business school essays, serious historical and factual research.” 15 To his credit, Namee is an honest scholar; his own meticulous research has led him to the conclusion which he now holds, independent of any preconceived notions. Arey on the other hand feels that the matter is settled because the “myth” of prynne punishment, unity will be “debunked” once “serious and factual research” (as opposed to “nonfactual” research?) is conducted. In other words, Arey and ems resume his partisans in the GOA have already decided on hester punishment essay the result, now all that is example 5 paragraph cause needed is research to justify the official party line. One can reasonably surmise that the essay, reason GOA functionaries have taken this argument is that it is only by doing so that the primatial claims of the OCA can be trumped. Weaknesses of the Counter-Myth. Leaving aside for the moment the ems resume, novel claims of Constantinopolitan supremacy and the sloppy logic of hester essay, its adherents, the assertion of administrative disunity has been taken up by other honest critics. As shall be seen time and again, it can only be sustained by where paper, completely ignoring the hester punishment, first century of the history of the Russian missionary diocese. Indeed, such willful ignorance is necessary for certain modern partisans of Constantinople otherwise their claims to jurisdiction over America can gain no purchase. It is only by going to the heart of the matter, that is to say the grant of autocephaly by imd business, Patriarch Alexei I to the Metropolia in prynne punishment, 1970 16 and attempting to delegitimize it, that such grandiose claims over North America can even be sustained.

Although this is probably not Namee’s intent, his arguments unwittingly give aid and comfort to the present supremacist Constantinopolitan position. More to the point, such a tack legitimizes the present jurisdictional anarchy with the attendant ecclesiological chaos. Regardless, the counter-myth fails to make its case. Consider: it is noted that both patriarchs Alexei I and his successor Pimen defended this action to example of a 5 paragraph cause and effect essay, Patriarch Athenagoras of prynne punishment essay, Constantinople. Their words on this matter, that the authority of the Moscow patriarchate over North America was “recognized by all the school essays, Local Churches, including the Holy Church of Constantinople#133;” 17 is hester left unchallenged. Athenegoras’ lame response that “the initial Russian presence in Alaska and on the west coast of the United States did not grant to the Russian Church jurisdiction over all of America” 18 likewise passes without comment. Two things are immediately obvious from the above statement: (1) Athenagoras recognized the precedence of the Russian Mission on ems resume American soil but tried to minimize it by limiting it to the “west coast” (which of course is not entirely true), and (2) Athenagoras made no countervailing argument against Alexei’s assertion that the prynne essay, Russian claim in North America was recognized by “all the Local Churches, including#133;Constantinople.” (What exactly was Athenagoras’ point? That Russia had jurisdiction over the Pacific Rim?) Interestingly enough, Athenagoras made no mention of Canon 28, which supposedly grants only Constantinople the right to evangelize and establish churches outside the boundaries of already established local churches. At the risk of digression, it is in fact becoming increasingly clear that the where cheap, present claims of the Phanar regarding these issues have been evolving.

Indeed, this new claim that is to say, Constantinopolitan supremacy based on a novel interpretation of hester essay, Canon 28 that no canonical or historical precedent. 5 Paragraph Cause And Effect Essay. In fact, it is only be viewing history a posteriori and with an agenda already in place that it can even be propounded in the first place. 19. It is noteworthy that both Alexei and Pimen held the same position regarding the American church. A case could certainly be made that their defense was self-serving. On the other hand, an even stronger case could be made that both men believed that an autocephalous mother church has the punishment, right to grant autonomy and even autocephaly to its own dioceses should the political situation warrant it this was in fact how ROCOR came about (after a fashion). 20. Be that as it may, this was also the position of the primitive Church, which saw the proliferation of ems resume, new dioceses and hester prynne punishment autocephalous provinces (as is implied in Apostolic Canon 34) in of a 5 paragraph and effect, the first five hundred years of the prynne punishment essay, Christian Era. What for that matter gives Athenagoras’ counter-argument any more weight? That is to say that Russia’s warrant extended only to San Francisco (if that)? Can it not also be said that his own position in this regard was self-serving?

And since we are traveling down this path, which canon gives only essay on all, Constantinople the right to grant autocephaly to churches that are not in hester punishment, its patriarchate? More to the point and apropos of the present argument propagated by some professors at Holy Cross, which canon gives only Constantinople the right to preach and goals evangelize a territory outside the borders of already established local churches, that is, universal jurisdiction? A position that is in fact in prynne punishment, direct violation of the Council of Carthage (A.D. 410)? 21. To buttress the case that the example of a essay, canonical anarchy that existed from 1908 on prynne punishment essay was of no consequence, the author Namee marshals a critic from within the GOA, Fr Thomas FitzGerald (currently dean of Holy Cross). Even with FitzGerald, it becomes clear that the case against the so-called creation myth is not as strong as we are led to believe. For example, FitzGerald, states that the “vast majority of Greek parishes were organized without any contact with the Russian bishops in on all myself, America.” 22 This is essay true. It is also a selective quotation, one wrenched out of a far less sympathetic context. Even its plain words cannot be used as an argument against the primacy of the Russian Mission since FitzGerald accepts the reality of on all about, “Russian bishops in America,” and implicitly accepts the fact that at least some Greek parishes (as opposed to the “vast majority”) adhered to hester prynne punishment, the proper protocols and imd business were under its pastoral care.

More importantly, FitzGerald is not blind to hester essay, what this independence meant for the proper canonical order then (or at the present for that matter), a situation which he labels as nothing less than a “serious anomaly.” According to FitzGerald: #133;the establishment of “ethnic” and even “political” dioceses rather than territorial dioceses may have served the short-term needs of the immigrants. Essay On All. However, the ecclesiastical requirements for canonical order, integrity, and the unity of the episcopacy in a give region were sacrificed. Hester Prynne. This led to an undue emphasis upon a policy of “congregationalism” which is alien to Orthodoxy, and to an attitude of phyletism, both which have greatly diminished the mission and salutary message of the ems resume, Orthodox Church in the United States until very recently. 23. The Emergence of Multiple Jurisdictions. To ask the question of whether this hyper-independence was Orthodox is to answer it: Is anarchy and schism, (its inevitable consequence) ever canonical? This is precisely the problem. Certainly FitzGerald is not oblivious to the loss of “canonical order.” As he himself states, not only did congregationalism undermine the prynne punishment essay, correct spiritual relationship between the people and their pastors, it distorted the goals, very nature of the episcopate itself. Indeed, almost all of the ecclesial models such as are presently employed in North America are nothing less than phyletistic, that is to say that they are ipso facto heretical. Even the OCA’s present model of ethnic dioceses which are parallel with its territorial on falls short of the canonical norm.

This is the logical conclusion of FitzGerald’s analysis (even if he does not make it himself). A very uncomfortable question derives from hester prynne punishment this, one which FitzGerald does not raise but which nevertheless logically follows: are the mysteries of the multiple, ethnic jurisdictions which he rightly labels “a serious anomaly” valid? Are the present multiple ethnic jurisdictions in virtual schism from of a and effect essay each other? If not, are we in fact looking instead at the inception of a new schism based on varying degrees of orthopraxy, which is the inevitable result of our present ghetto mentality? If unity did in fact exist at one time, one could easily make this case. Even if a grand, overarching unity never in fact existed, do not the hester, parallel, later jurisdictions many of school, which were created from a smattering of ethnic parishes that arose because of schism from the hester, Russian Mission bear the taint of ems resume, canonical irregularity? Otherwise, why would their partisans resolutely dismiss or otherwise ignore the first century of American Orthodoxy? As noted, even the hester punishment essay, present Ecumenical Patriarch went out of his way to ems resume, present a distorted and highly misleading case regarding the origins of Orthodoxy on the North American continent. Therefore the hester punishment essay, fundamental question is: Why should this be the case?

It appears that the burden of proof is upon those who are antithetical to the primacy of the Russian Mission otherwise the reliance upon such a massive historical lacunae would not be necessary. The presence of multiple, redundant, and parallel jurisdictions in on all, North America is not without its canonical and prynne essay liturgical conundrums. As mentioned, there is hardly a consensus regarding a wide spectrum of moral concerns. Liturgical divergences are real as well. That being said, is it possible that Orthodoxy in America is in the process of undergoing a modern replay of the ancient Donatist heresy, in which those who consider themselves to 5 paragraph cause and effect essay, be “more” Orthodox will have very little to do with those whom they deem “less” Orthodox? If this scenario plays out, which body of American Orthodox will be the hester prynne essay, Donatists and which the Orthodox-Catholics? Will there be a new St Augustine who will forge a rationale for rapprochement between these two estranged ecclesial bodies?

Even if it never comes to this, if we continue this path, it is obvious that disunity and disharmony will continue to about myself, be the norm. FitzGerald was being charitable when he wrote these words in 1984. In the interim, the punishment, divergences liturgical and otherwise between jurisdictions have only intensified. Contrary to the optimism of some, it is to buy paper just as likely that a break in communion can occur if the present disunity is not resolved. Prynne Punishment Essay. If not inevitable, it is at least foreseeable. Ignorance of canonical authority cannot negate the reality of the same, in much the same way that “ignorance of the law is no excuse” (as stated by the famous legal adage).

It is curious indeed why critics of the “creation myth” feel that they have to justify deplorable behavior in order to break free from the about, “myth” of the primacy of the Russian Mission. Regardless of the fact that unity from 1892 on was increasingly ignored by prynne punishment, the newer immigrants, FitzGerald’s words cannot be dragooned into the service of those who wish to justify this anarchy as a trivial matter. Nor for that matter can they be used by modern partisans who wish to subjugate the current multiple jurisdictions of North America under yet another foreign church. Essay To Persuade. Indeed, quite the opposite. His own words on this matter are quite explicit: he writes that “Orthodoxy in the United States can only hester prynne punishment essay, be viewed properly as an emerging local Church comprised mainly of American citizens of imd business, a wide variety of racial, ethnic, and religious backgrounds.” FitzGerald goes on to state:

In due course, with the guidance of the Holy Spirit, the various Orthodox jurisdictions#133;will be united into an autocephalous Church which will be officially recognized as such by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the other autocephalous Orthodox Churches. 24. The present essay is not concerned with the present hyperbolic claims made by the modern devotees of Canon 28. To be fair, neither is Namee. (Indeed, the present protocols of the Chambesy conference of June and December of 2009 have laid to rest all references to Canon 28, which was not even referenced in hester prynne, any of the proceedings. Essay. 25 ) Regardless, it is equally clear that the counter-myth proposed by Namee and others makes it easier to propagate this newer position. After all, many Old World patriarchates continue to view the hester essay, Orthodox of America as a part of a dispersion, one sustained by on all about myself, blood ties to the Old World and not because of any concerted evangelistic effort. FitzGerald’s position is in fact the exact opposite. To believe otherwise, one would have to take this argument to the next logical step, that is that the anarchy that obtained from 1908 in certain independent parishes was normative and of no charismatic consequence. Leaving aside the problem of sacramental validity, such nonchalance would necessarily mean that there is in fact no Orthodox position regarding parish or diocesan formation; that all comers are welcome and all parishes and dioceses founded under such schemes are canonical. Hester Prynne Essay. This is an ems resume absurd argument on its face and prynne punishment Orthodox in America were alerted to this fear by Chronopoulos, who wrote that because of our administrative disunity, there is no legal way to stop the proliferation of jurisdictions which call themselves “Orthodox.” 26. Two Early Parishes: Holy Trinity, New Orleans 1864 Holy Trinity, New York 1892.

Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church – 1866. In 1890, Namee states that only two Orthodox churches existed in goals, the “continental United States.” He describes them as “a Russian cathedral in San Francisco and a Holy Trinity parish in New Orleans.” Curiously, the ethnic origin of this latter church is not mentioned. There are perhaps several reasons for this, including the fact that although it was founded in 1864, its ethnic identity was only hester prynne punishment, first described in to buy, the US Census of 1890, wherein we are told that it was “a part of the Church of Greece, in connection with the consulate of Greece in prynne essay, New Orleans.” Notice that this description first surfaces twenty-two years after the fact . Its “jurisdiction” therefore is not a settled matter. To his credit, Namee points out that according to imd business school, some contemporaneous sources, it (Holy Trinity) was believed by punishment essay, some to be “under the characters, authority of the Church of Russia.” 27 Its conception, in prynne essay, other words, was less than immaculate. In fact, its origins are murkier than what is stated in the official pronouncements of the Greek jurisdiction. Its first priest was a man named Agapius Honcharenko, whom we are told was “an itinerant Ukrainian of questionable credentials who was visiting New York City in 1865 when he was contacted by the New Orleans parish.” According to Honcharenko himself, he “had a price on on all myself his head for hester prynne, his involvement in revolutionary activities.” In previous responses to another critic, 28 I made much of the fact that some of the priests who came to America independently of the essay explaining how macbeth characters use rhetoric to persuade, Russian Mission were under an ethical or “canonical cloud.” I stand by this statement. Let us distill this argument to its essence: the concept of an independently founded parish which was congregational in polity, by necessity gave rise to the scandalous concept of the hireling priest. Neither phenomenon is canonical. Essay. I leave it up to use rhetoric themselves, the reader to decide about the hester, validity of sacraments performed under such conditions. In his presentation at St Vladimir’s, emphasis was made on Honcharenko’s estrangement from the Russian Orthodox Church, ostensibly to further neutralize the example of a essay, “myth” of unity.

In doing so however, it is the parish’s canonicity which is called into question, not the validity of the Russian Mission . Hester Prynne. Again, nigh-heroic efforts must be made to essay example, ignore the elephant in the room, thereby unwittingly strengthening the contrary argument. Therefore incidents such as the chaotic founding of the New Orleans parish cannot be a point of pride (nor should they) and in fact, such parish formations militate against the claims of modern-day critics of the hester, Russian missionary diocese and other propagandists of the multiple jurisdictional model. This fact requires further reflection; in fact, it boggles the mind. Why did this supposedly “Greek” parish reach out to imd business essays, a Ukrainian of such disrepute to be its first priest (if indeed he was a priest)? If this was a Greek parish which was “part of the Church of Greece,” and one “in connection with the Greek consulate” (as stated years later in prynne, the 1890 Census) then why didn’t it look to school essays, Greece for its first priest? Is it possible that Mark Stokoe’s assessment (that it was a pan-Orthodox parish made up immigrants from many different Orthodox groups) is the hester, more accurate one? 29 Even if the matter of Holy Trinity’s ethnic origins cannot be settled once and for all, we do know that all other parishes established between 1868 and 1892 admittedly a small number were most definitely under the school essays, Russian Mission, regardless of ethnic origin.

Namee then goes to some lengths to minimize the punishment essay, impact of the Alaskan experience. He indicates that it did not become a territory until 1912, overlooking the fact that its sovereignty was transferred to the United States when it was purchased in 1867 from the czarist government. As for the geographical separation of Alaska from the continental United States, he looks to essay, Fr Michael Oleksa, an authority on Alaskan Orthodoxy for support. He records that according to Oleksa “#133;by 1917, the vast majority of American Orthodox immigrants#133;were ‘totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.’” 30 This is not completely accurate as we shall soon point out. Regardless, this assertion is hester prynne superfluous as the vast majority of imd business, canonists, theologians, priests, and bishops were at least aware of the antiquity of the Russian Mission as stated by patriarchs Alexei, Pimen and prynne essay (reluctantly) Athenagoras.

More importantly, during this time of peak immigration (1890-1920), many, if not most, Orthodox Christians in America before this time knew this as well. Indeed, the argument of Alaska’s geographic distance is a nullity since up until 1996, all jurisdictions in North America were transnational in that they include Canada and Mexico as well. 31 As to its unique culture, that is neither here nor there: The culture of the Carpatho-Russians of the Monongahela Valley, the Serbs of the Mountain West, the Ukrainians of Manitoba, and the Greeks of Tarpon Springs are equally unique and “worthy of study.” Be that as it may, Louisiana was in secession from the United States and it was under federal occupation and martial law. Indeed, this church (Holy Trinity) had been founded in the Confederate States of America, a polity which was viewed sympathetically by most of the great European powers (Russia excepted) and whose incipient nationhood would have been recognized had the Army of Northern Virginia prevailed at Gettysburg. Therefore Athenagoras’ attempt to school, disqualify the prynne punishment, legitimacy of the Russian Mission’s claim to being the local church of the example 5 paragraph and effect, United States because it was located in San Francisco falls under the weight of its own logic. Prynne. It is in fact, historically untenable. California at least was a legitimate territory, thereby placing it within the to buy paper, normative life of the United States whereas Louisiana had forfeited this right because of its secession from the Union. Its citizens in fact were disenfranchised in the immediate aftermath of the War Between the States. Indeed, it was an prynne punishment essay open question at the time as to whether some (or all) of the Southern states would have been welcomed back into the Union.

32. Perhaps realizing that the questionable origin of the New Orleans parish does not help the cause of Greek independence from the essay example, Russian Mission, Namee then jumps ahead thirty years to hester prynne punishment essay, the creation of Holy Trinity in New York City in 1892. This church, which was the product of a secular Greek lodge called the Society of Athena, approached the Church of Greece for essay, its first priest. The matter was remanded to the Ecumenical Patriarchate who then referred the issue back to hester essay, the Church of Greece. Coincidentally, this is not unlike the scenario which occurred eighty years later, when the Metropolia went to Istanbul to example, plead their case, only to be told to turn to their mother church in Russia (which then granted them autocephaly). Within a few years, a schism in this Church of hester punishment, Greece parish erupted resulting in of a 5 paragraph and effect, the establishment of another parish in New York (Annunciation) which was set up under the auspices of the hester essay, Ecumenical Patriarchate. This of goals example, course brings up another uncomfortable question: Since the prynne essay, closing of the Russian chapel in New York, the fact that the imd business, first parish in New York was “founded” by the Church of Greece would indicate that territorial rights belonged to that church, not the Ecumenical Patriarchate. (Of course, the Church of Greece did no such thing, it was founded by its congregants who then turned to Greece for a priest.) Be that as it may, an punishment argument could be made that Constantinople was encroaching upon the jurisdiction of essay explaining to persuade themselves, that church.

This is curious in that it was understood that the Church of Greece was constrained by prynne essay, its own grant of autocephaly from evangelizing outside its borders. Goals Example. This grant had been given to Greece by the Ecumenical Patriarchate in 1850, when it ended the prynne, schism that had erupted between the two churches some twenty years earlier when the Church of Greece unilaterally declared autocephaly from the Turkish-controlled Ecumenical Patriarchate. Essay Myself. Regardless, this calls into question not only the details of the counter-myth, but the present hyperbolic claims of Constantinopolitan primacy whose partisans claim that no autocephalous church can exercise missionary efforts outside of their own nations’ boundaries. The very fact that the Ecumenical Patriarchate remanded the issue of punishment essay, pastoral care for this parish to the Church of Greece shows this type of about myself, canonical stricture was not in evidence or more probably that it was a dead letter. At any rate, it shows in a glaringly patent manner that neither church had any real or effective concern for North America. At the risk of belaboring the point, no claims of primacy over the North American continent were leveled at hester essay this time or of universal jurisdiction for that matter. Not only were these parishes on their own, but their lack of essay on all myself, interaction with each other proves that all claims of primacy and jurisdiction were subsequent to the fact. In other words, the reality on the ground was one of pastoral and prynne punishment evangelistic apathy, to a degree that is unfathomable to normative ecclesiastical practice. Cheap. If this does not dispel any notions of universal jurisdiction and/or Byzantine primacy over North America, then nothing does. Since it appears that the Church of prynne, Greece chose not to contest the founding of this schismatic parish, and there was no guidance in this matter from on all about either the Church of Greece or the prynne essay, Ecumenical Patriarchate, then the concept of parish foundation and jurisdiction at this time was fluid, one could even say anarchic. At least this was the case with those ethnic parishes founded independently of the Russian missionary diocese.

The contrast with parish formation as found within the Russian Mission is stark (to say the least). Every parish set up under the pastoral care of the Russian bishops, and all evangelistic activities under its aegis, were undertaken with the essay how macbeth characters, greatest attention to hester essay, detail. At any rate, the picture painted above by anti-Russian Mission partisans of where cheap, parishes outside its purview is not a pretty one. For example, in order to neutralize the primatial claims of the Russian Mission, many critics like to point out that in some cities, Greek parishes preceded the foundation of prynne essay, Russian parishes. Example Of A 5 Paragraph Essay. To be sure, it is hester prynne noted that in New York City, a Russian chapel which had been founded in 1870, was closed by the Russian government in essay on all about, 1883.

If however, the Orthodox ecclesiological principle as envisioned by this newer narrative is one of independence, or to be more accurate, complete indifference to prynne essay, the established ecclesial presence, then what of this fact? What difference would it have made had there been ten Russian Mission parishes in New York City? Or a hundred for that matter? After all, it does not appear that these newer Greek parishes were concerned at all about the established Russian hierarchy in example of a and effect essay, the New World. Nor were they concerned with each other for that matter. The Counter-Myth: Selective Comparisons. It is here that anti-Russian Mission partisans seem to have staked some we see some very tenuous claims, that is, that numbers alone can overwhelm an established local church and that indifference to the territorial principle is of no consequence. Essay. This argument however is a double-edged sword. Were there not already scores of parishes in Alaska?

Were there not dozens of formerly Uniate parishes in the lower 48 by this time? For that matter, were there not Russian Mission parishes being formed due to imd business, the immigration of prynne punishment essay, Russians, Ukrainians, Galicians, and Byelorussians into ems resume, North America during this very same time? Clearly what we see at this time is a formal, recognized diocese operating under canonical norms and undertaking a serious evangelistic program. Why then do critics insist on overlooking this substantial effort with its scores of parishes in hester prynne essay, favor of the much smaller number of independent parishes which were being founded in where cheap, a piecemeal, chaotic fashion and under no canonical supervision whatsoever? At any rate, it is not unknown for dioceses to close down missions and churches. Punishment. This does not mean that the diocese is extinct or that it can be taken over by another autocephalous Orthodox church. By selectively comparing three Russian parishes in the lower 48 (and ignoring the large numbers of Alaskan and Uniate parishes) to an equally small number of independent Greek parishes, a highly skewed picture of American Orthodoxy in the period from essay example 1890-1910 is hester presented. Perhaps this is why some critics of the Russian Mission go to such great lengths to ignore the reality of the Uniate outreach of St Alexis Toth as well as the ecclesiological experience of Alaska is essay on all myself ignored.

When viewed in the correct light, “administrative unity” for the growing number of parishes of the Russian diocese appears far closer to the reality than not. More to the point, how was the Russian Mission administered? Were canonical norms in place, especially in regards to the treatment of priests? Specifically, were the priests of the Russian Mission treated as they were in the few Greek parishes that existed before 1910, that is to hester, say, as employees who were hired and fired based on nothing more than the caprices of ems resume, congregationally run parish councils (as noted by prynne punishment essay, even critics of the so-called creation myth). To further make the case for administrative disunity, Namee describes the situation in Chicago in which a Russian and Greek parish existed side-by-side, with supposedly little interaction. This lack of interaction however did not cover that particular Greek parish in glory as we can tell from contemporaneous accounts, a fact which must have been obvious to casual observers since it generated some notoriety. According to The Chicago Tribune for example, we learn that “One is the Orthodox or regular Russian Church#133;while the other is purely Greek in its membership and essays nationality. 33 ” According to this same source, “The Greek church ‘wants no one but those of Hellenic blood among its members.’” Again, in hester prynne, my previous responses 34 to a certain critic, I made much of the fact that the ems resume, idea that these independent priests viewed themselves as “missionaries,” was a very charitable view given the actual facts on essay the ground. Exaggerated would not be too strong a word in this regard. How Macbeth Use Rhetoric Themselves. I stand by that claim.

Certainly the congregations that hired them did not view them as “missionaries.” Interestingly enough, the “independence” of the Greeks from the punishment essay, Russian diocese appears to not be so cut-and-dried. Namee cites two incidents of co-worship between Greeks and Russians. The first occurred on essay on all myself Oct 7, 1894, wherein we are told that both Greeks and Russians in Chicago worshiped together at the Russian church to “commemorate the hester essay, hundredth anniversary of Orthodoxy in of a 5 paragraph essay, the New World.” 35 Regrettably, this startling fact passes without comment. At the very least, this is clear evidence of the fact that there was clear agreement about the antiquity of the Russian Mission and its primacy in North America. This in fact calls into question veracity of Oleksa’s comment that “the vast majority” of Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware” of the Alaskan church. Clearly, these Greek-Americans were aware. Indeed, this act of commemorative worship is evidence that knowledge of hester prynne punishment, Alaska was not as unknown as we have been led to believe. And this was not a singular incident. Later that same year for example, memorial services were held for Tsar Alexander III in explaining how macbeth characters to persuade, all three Greek churches in the U.S., Yet further evidence that there was recognition of the precedence of the Russian Mission and punishment essay perhaps some degree of dependence upon the czarist government. This is an important point: Why would these mostly republican Greek immigrants commemorate the late Tsar, who was an absolutist monarch?

The answer may lie in the fact that many of them were thankful for the resources that the Russian Mission extended to them. We can therefore say that in some Greek circles, it appears that they did view themselves as being part of the local Orthodox authority, at least in some general sense. As to the fact of Greek “independence” being due to lack of proper canonical and episcopal oversight, this is no matter for pride. Nor was it as unyielding as the critics would have us believe: We learn for example that in school, the time period in question, that is before the final rupture (1916-1918), six “independent” Greek parishes received antimins from the hester prynne essay, Russian Mission, thereby placing themselves formally under its jurisdiction. In other words, 7 percent of Greek-American parishes placed themselves under the protection of the Russian hierarchy a good eight years after they were supposedly “transferred” to the Church of Greece by the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Interestingly enough, this is the exact same time period in which we are told by Oleksa that the “vast majority” of essay on all myself, Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.” Perhaps they were ignorant of the Alaskan church, but were they “totally unaware” of the hester prynne punishment essay, Russian-American diocese? Increasingly, it looks like they were not, otherwise, why would they reach out to 5 paragraph essay, the Russian bishops for their antiminsions? Independent Parishes Under a “Canonical Cloud” Barbara MacGahan – 1893 (Photo SOCHA) My entire contention about independent parishes being under a canonical cloud increases in strength given the more facts we uncover. One would do better to avert one’s eyes from this fact and what it portends for the ecclesiology of the subsequent ethnic jurisdictions.

As Namee himself notes, things were so bad that one contemporaneous Greek bishop describes the situation in the Greek parishes as “complete chaos.” He also quotes Fr John Erickson, who writes that these same Greek parishes were “independent of any authority beyond the local community.” 36 In other words they were congregational, which is to say, not canonical. Leaving aside for the moment the shocking ramifications such a state of affairs implies as to the matter of ecclesial legitimacy, the congregational principle was so pronounced that almost no priest escaped its wrath, surely a novelty in the vast sweep of Orthodox ecclesial history. How chaotic was this situation? According to a contemporaneous letter written to The Washington Post , one Mrs Barbara MacGahan goes to great lengths to distance the canonical Orthodox praxis as found in hester, the churches of the Russian Mission from the essay explaining how macbeth, antics found in some of these independent parishes. 37 MacGahan (who, despite her name, was a prominent Russian-American) pleaded with her readers to not hold the hester prynne punishment essay, Russians responsible since they were “under the steady guidance of Bishop Tikhon,” whereas the 5 paragraph cause essay, Greek parishes were “without any ecclesiastical guidance of supervision.” One shudders to hester prynne punishment, think what was taking place in these parishes that it came to the unsympathetic attention of the essay to persuade themselves, general public. The origin of the incipient Greek exarchate requires more study. We are told that the Church of Greece had “established” the first Greek parish in New York City, and that soon after several other parishes were founded by hester prynne, that same church.

In reality of course, the Church of Greece did no such thing; instead these parishes were established, founded, and funded by the Greek immigrants usually under the ems resume, auspices of quasi-Masonic lodges and the Church of Greece merely accepted them as a fait accompli . Prynne Punishment. Quite simply, the Greek church was in no position to endow or otherwise support new parishes outside its borders. At any rate, in 1908 the essay explaining characters use rhetoric to persuade themselves, Ecumenical Patriarchate was forced by hester prynne punishment, the Turkish government to essay goals example, relinquish control of prynne, them to the Church of Greece. (This unsettling fact likewise passes without comment.) The Russian Orthodox Church at this point declared that all Greek parishes were under its purview. Constantinople disagreed and stuck to goals example, its original diktat, thus officially creating an essay extracanonical ethnic jurisdiction in North America as one contemporary critic stated at the time. Critics of the “creation myth” however try to ems resume, mitigate the hester prynne punishment, severity of ems resume, this transfer by stating that both the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Church of Greece were already “sending priests to punishment, America, resolving parish disputes, consecrating Holy Chrism for use in the New World, and even in the case of Fr Raphael Morgan commissioning missionaries to evangelize Americans.” 38 Left unsaid is whether either church had the right to do so. As for essay explaining use rhetoric to persuade, “commissioning missionaries,” the seriousness of Morgan’s mission is an open question, one not easily resolved by hester punishment, simple assertions. How Macbeth Characters Use Rhetoric To Persuade Themselves. 39. What is hester prynne also left unexamined is that this tomos of transfer was not universally accepted even by the Greek-Americans.

In other words, many continued to view themselves as part of the imd business school, Ecumenical Patriarchate instead of the Church of Greece; again, a rather startling set of circumstances which the critics choose to ignore. At this point, let me raise the uncomfortable question: If the punishment essay, Greek parishes chose to ignore this edict (from their mother church no less), it follows that they were refusing to accept the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarchate as well, thereby cutting themselves off from communion with this church. Essay Goals. Under such circumstances, how could one make the case that their mysteries were valid or that the punishment, erstwhile pan-Hellenic jurisdiction was canonical? Leaving aside these uncomfortable facts, it is obvious that the tomos of transfer itself was invalid. To be sure, these parishes’ indifference to where cheap paper, the tomos may have been due to their congregationalism, nevertheless the plain fact remains that it was issued, even if under duress. No edict or canon that is enacted under such conditions can be considered valid otherwise, the council of Ferrara-Florence (1449) which ostensibly healed the schism between Greek East and Latin West is still in effect. This act was forced upon every Byzantine bishop by the emperor who wished to see a political alliance with the West. As is known, every Orthodox bishop present (except for Mark Eugenicus, the hester, metropolitan of Ephesus) was forced to sign it.

The noxiousness of ems resume, this act was readily apparent to hester essay, all and it became an instant nullity among the people. Partisans of new anti-Russian Mission creation myth therefore can find no consolation in the tomos of 1908 by the Ecumenical Patriarchate nor for that matter can the present-day universal jurisdictionalists. At best, the most that both anti-Russian Mission parties can say is explaining characters use rhetoric to persuade themselves that ethnic particularism and hester ecclesial anarchy is of no concern when studying the origins of the multiple jurisdictions. Indeed, the casual reader could be forgiven for getting the distinct impression that the parade of horribles that the critics describe is in fact a point of where to buy cheap, pride, at least to the degree which these egregious incidents can be used to dismantle the punishment essay, idea of early American Orthodox unity. George Michalopulos is a layman in the Orthodox Church in America. Myself. He is hester married to ems resume, the former Margaret Verges of hester punishment essay, Houston, Texas, and the father of two boys, Constantine and Michael. Together with Deacon Ezra Ham, he is the essay myself, author of The American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings (Salisbury: Regina Orthodox Press, 2003), as well as several articles and essays published on the Orthodox Christian Laity website. He has served as parish council president of hester, Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church in Tulsa, OK, and twice was a lay delegate to the Clergy-Laity Congress of 1998 and 2002. He helped found Holy Apostles Orthodox Christian Mission, a parish of the OCA in 2003 and continues to imd business school, be active in pan-Orthodox events in the greater Tulsa area.

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1419 Words Essay on Retail Trade and Mall Culture in India. Retailing is the last link in the supply chain connecting the punishment essay bulk producers of to buy cheap, various commodities to the consumers-thus working as the final step in the distribution of goods-and with the introduction of retail banking-also services. Retail covers the entire range of goods such as apparels, footwear, cameras, cell-phones, CDs, washing machines, and from financial service to provisions of entertainment, tourism and leisure. A retailer is typically someone who does not add value to the good or service sold nor does he effect any change in punishment, the product except breaking the bulk. Essay On All About Myself! He is the final outlet making the goods and services available to the consumers whenever required, thus helping easy access or availability of various types of goods and hester punishment essay, services at the desired location in desired time. In the developed countries of Europe and America, the retail industry has developed into a full-fledged organised industry where over 75 per cent of the total trade is done by the organised sector. Essay Goals! India#8217;s march towards retail as an organised industry started with the opening up of the economy with the adoption of the policy of economic liberalisation in the wake of globalisation during the early 1990s. This paved the way for more active participation of the vibrant private sector in punishment essay, economic activities including the making of huge capital in retail business. Image Source : i2.wp.com.

The congenial environment created by globalisation and economic liberalisation gave a tremendous boost to essay on all, trade and commerce, encouraged foreign companies to outsource as well as invest in India. The flow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India started showing an upward trend and is still continuing to do so. The big retail chains like Wal-Mart, Sears, K-mark and McDonalds, etc. Prynne! are now replacing the on all individual small stores across the country. Punishment Essay! Several Indian biggies like Reliance and Birla Group have also ventured into the retail business in a big way. Certain other private companies have opened shopping malls in the big cities across the where to buy paper country as retail outlets of various types of goods in prynne essay, the same multiplex which can be called a supermarket. The mall culture has come to India in a big way and to buy cheap paper, has come to stay. The malls are huge shopping complexes built at punishment convenient places-normally in the city centre. They are multi- storeyed, modern, beautiful buildings containing a large number of shops or segregated sale outlets for a range of goods ranging from ready-made garments to where cheap, jewellery-covering electronic items, and every conceivable consumer article. Hester Punishment! These malls are fully air-conditioned and customers find shopping an enjoyable experience. The articles are neatly displayed at appropriate places where customers can have a close look and check the price for essay goals example, each item on the tag. Punishment! There is no room for ems resume, bargaining nor is there such tradition in the malls.

Discounts may be on prynne essay offer on certain items-the information about which is displayed at many places and is otherwise advertised through media and close circuit TVs. Each item is billed properly with taxes duly charged and essay explaining characters themselves, remitted to the government. Within the shopping mall are restaurants and eating plazas where one can go for lunch, dinner or snacks to make shopping a complete outing with one#8217;s family. Children are not bored if they are hopeful of getting their favourite dish like pizza or a pastry with cold drinks. There are also arrangements for entertainment/games in certain malls- especially for children. Each shopping mall has an adequate parking place so that the roads are not blocked with large number of cars being parked near the mall.

The development of mall culture in essay, India has attracted many foreign companies and NRIs to invest in India. The reality stocks in the Indian stock market have experienced an unprecedented boom. These foreign companies are investing in property- commercial as well as residential and have built up sizeable tangible assets. Even the big private companies like Reliance Industries have bought a large number of properties in major Indian cities to set up malls and supermarkets. This has led to a sharp rise in the prices of real estate in India. Not only the commercial plots but also the residential properties have seen an escalation of over 100 per cent in their prices. While the government has earned revenue of millions of rupees in the shape of taxes and duties on the transfer of where paper, properties, the inflation has been on the rise, leading to government to take monetary measures like increase in CRR as well as the repo rates. Another negative effect of this price rise has been that properties-even the hester punishment LIG and MIG flats have gone beyond the reach of middle-class group.

The arrivals of big players in the retail business and the opening up of supermarkets and malls have adversely impacted small individual traders and shopkeepers. More and more people have started going to malls for shopping because of clean atmosphere and convenient shopping. They don#8217;t have to tire themselves out by searching the whole bazaar to buy different articles as the whole range is available in one complex. Example Of A And Effect! The small vendors, hawkers, small shopkeepers and weekly market/ pavement sellers don#8217;t have the hester wherewithal to provide that much variety or offer handsome discounts as their supplies are limited and their profit margins are small. There have been protests in some cities in front of the supermarkets and stores by the associations of traders. They say that these malls, multiplexes and characters, supermarkets are encroaching on their business and are snatching their livelihoods. As more and more people have started preferring to go to supermarkets, the small traders and shopkeepers are experiencing a slack business and are finding it hard to even recover the costs.

Although legally, they cannot ask the supermarket owners to close their business, yet the prynne punishment essay adverse impact of mall culture on ems resume these small retailers cannot be ignored. Another charge that is levied against these malls is that some of them owned by foreign multinational companies (MNCs) give a tough competition to the local Indian company-which harms local trade. The MNCs like Wal-Mart also prefer to sell foreign goods instead of indigenous products which again is detrimental to local industries. However, some people believe that these companies bring new ideas and high quality products and unprove the standards of local companies. The reaction of the people at large towards the development of mall culture in India has been quite favourable. Most of them feel that the quality of goods available at these stores is much better than those available at ordinary stores. Punishment Essay! The prices are also reasonable and in some cases, lower than at other places. Paper! This is hester essay, true because big business houses are able to reduce the cost price because of bulk purchases from their suppliers at essay to persuade themselves a bargained price and are, therefore, able to sell at a slightly lower price. They may have a direct arrangement of supply from the manufacturers who may charge a discount price because of assured regular orders. Big retailers do business on prynne punishment essay the praxis that large sales even at a small profit margin yield a high amount of profit and attract customers regularly. The small retailers and shopkeepers cannot offer such discounts.

The other advantage that consumers find in shopping at malls is that they don#8217;t need to carry cash which is risky anyway. They can shop with their credit cards. The banks allow them credit facilities up to the sanctioned limit. The accounts are settled periodically when the customer gets his salary, etc. School! Thus, people can shop without actually having any money. The banks add to their profit by hester punishment charging interest and other charges on the credit given under the card. The government gets service tax from the bank, sales tax and now Value Added Tax from the essay example mall-owner. These facilities are not available with most of hester prynne essay, small traders and retail shopkeepers. Nor are they so much revenue spinners for the government. These malls and supermarkets have given employment to lakhs of persons across the country. Working in double shifts and open up to well after sunset, these shopping malls have to essay, employ thousands of people for different types of jobs-from security guards to essay, sales boys/girls to example of a 5 paragraph and effect essay, cashiers and supervisors.

The suppliers of various types of hester prynne punishment, goods and equipments are like ancillary units that flourish because of explaining how macbeth characters use rhetoric, these supermarkets. These suppliers promote cottage industry when they, in turn order the manufacturing of various types of goods like packaging material, display banners, tags, uniform makers. Many handicrafts items are actually on sale at hester prynne some malls. As things stand today, the advantages of malls far outweigh the disadvantages. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to example 5 paragraph cause and effect, provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.

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Hey SAHMs: Here’s some back-to-work resume advice. I am a part-time SAHM and a part-time WAHM (work-at-home mom). Essay! Which I think makes me a full-time WASAHM. Essay On All About Myself! Or some other unpronounceable acronym. Anyway, I have a lot of full-time SAHM friends who are thinking about going back to work now that their kids are getting older. I have never left the prynne, working world, so they ask me for advice.

And all of them say right away to imd business me: I want to hester go back to where work. But I haven’t worked in like six years. What will I put on my resume? And I say: HOLY CRAP, woman.

You have most certainly been working for the past six years. You’re looking at it all wrong. You’ve got plenty of real skills and qualifications to fill in a resume. You don’t believe me? Trust me, mamas.

I work with so many people who do a crappy job at work. They are young kids, recently out of college, who need hand-holding and ego-stroking and mentoring and blah blah blah. Or they are complacent num-nuts who have been in the same job for ten years and have no fresh ideas. You could totally kick their asses. Let me show you how to rethink what you’ve been doing over hester essay, the past six to example ten years. You need to translate your Mom Reality into Resume Reality. Ready? Here we go.

See? It’s all how you spin it! Grownups throw tantrums in the workplace all the time. Hester Prynne Essay! You will be well-prepared for that ridiculousness, that’s for sure. Now of course, I’m being a little tongue-in-cheek. Essay! But seriously, the way I see it? You are eminently hirable: * Moms have crazy mad skills that are unbelievably useful in the workplace. We have to be organized, we multi-task like crazy, we get along with/manage/coexist with many different personalities, and hester prynne punishment, we’re pretty freakin smart.

Last I checked, these are all desirable skills. * Another fact to give a you a little confidence? I have been seeing lots of moms snagging part-time jobs recently. The not-so-great economy has meant many small businesses hiring part-time, no-benefits office workers. For anyone whose spouse is already the source of essay how macbeth to persuade health insurance, and who doesn’t want to work 40 hrs/week, this is a great deal. * And, by the way, you know all those baby boomers who are retiring? That means there are going to be an awful lot of jobs opening up in the next five years or so. Businesses are going to be scrambling for hester prynne punishment workers just as you are looking for work. Or just as you are ready to make the jump from part-time to full-time. Essay! Sweet! Now, I am Honest Mom.

So I’m not going to sugar-coat it. It’s not going to be a piece of hester cake. Yeah, you may have to essay characters use rhetoric to persuade themselves take a bunch of steps back in your career from where you left off. Yeah, you probably won’t make tons of prynne money right off the bat. But you have to start somewhere. Just get your foot in the door and go from there! And just remember: You HAVE been working the last 6-10 years.

Don’t discount what you’ve been doing. Characters Use Rhetoric! Any employer (that you’d want to work for) is going to respect the choices you’ve made for your family. And there are an awful lot of people out there – especially women like me – who’d hire you in a second. I have a lot of prynne punishment experience as a job applicant, as a hiring manager, and as a freelancer/independent contractor. I’ve written tons of resumes, both traditional and imd business school, non-traditional. And I’m a real-life copywriter who worked her way through marketing into punishment essay, copywriting. So if you have any questions about getting back into imd business school, the workforce or changing careers, let me know. I’m happy to help however I can! comments so far - you can comment using your Facebook account (or scroll down past comments for hester prynne punishment essay other options) 36 Replies to “Hey SAHMs: Here’s some back-to-work resume advice” I LOVE this!

I’m a big believer that you can carry your SAHM skills into ems resume, the workplace. I used to be a (part-time) educational administrator, now I’m a SAHM and childcare provider. But I call myself an early childhood educator, started an early childhood ed blog (not the hester essay, one I’m commenting from today) and fully intend to WORK IT when it’s time to dust off the ol’ resume! Great post! Thanks, Katy! I get sad when my SAHM friends think they’ve been doing nothing that is applicable to the work world. Ems Resume! It’s so not true! I feel like I am a better worker now BECA– — — USE of my SAHM days. I mean seriously, the kidless people at work have got nothin’ on hester punishment essay, my multitasking skills! Fabulous post! As a former full-time working mom, then part-time working mom, now work-at-home/SAHM, I agree with just about to buy cheap everything you said!

I think it would be really interesting to actually put those things on a resume or in hester prynne essay, a cover letter. Essay Myself! Translate your home responsibilities into viable skills for hester punishment the workforce. I bet it would catch the attention of ems resume anyone looking at your resume. Just doing this shows you’ve got creativity! Seriously… when you’re trying to get a job, you want to stand out from the rest, right? Mom Reality / Resume rewrite. Hosts group play dates / Engages in hester prynne punishment, team-building activities. Interacts with high-maintenance moms on the playground / Works well with various personality types.

Thanks! I read some articles that said not to put anything “cute” like Household CEO. Essay Explaining Themselves! I could see the hester prynne, reasoning for that – but I do think creativity counts. For example, if you’ve been a SAHM for five years and also been volunteering, your most recent title could be “Full-time parent and active volunteer” and where cheap, the bullets could seriously be some of the hester prynne punishment essay, ones I listed above. Also, a summary paragraph at the beginning of a resume is imd business school essays, always good – since it highlights your strengths such as highly-organized, dependable, dedicated, etc… This is great.

And too true that SAHMs ignore our skills because we honed them at home. I think it’s like any resume, write down what you’ve done and while doing so you’ll be reminded of the value of it and the skills it exploited that you can bring to prynne essay bear in a new workplace. So true! It’s like any job – when you’re in the job, it’s hard to remember that what you’re doing is important and you’re gaining valuable skills. Which I forget as I’m doing my 5th load of essay myself laundry while scheduling a doctor appointment for my kid and cooking dinner. #128521;

I’ve just started being a SAHM but it’s nice to know that when my son (and any future little spawns… errr, I mean children) is older, I might have employment opportunities. Although, I’m not sure smart ass, bossy and stubborn can be well translated onto a Resume. #128578; Thanks for making me smile and laugh on this dreary (weather-wise) Friday. Smart-ass = good sense of hester punishment humor. Bossy = excellent leadership skills. See?

Anything is school, spinnable! LOVE it. Just what I needed. Not that I’m looking now, but I was starting to get a serious case of the woe-is-me-I’ll-never-be-able-to-go-back-to-works. Lauren, you most certainly WILL be able to go back to work! #128578; And if you are seriously considering it in the future, it wouldn’t hurt to do some volunteer work (if you aren’t yet and can squeeze it in) – that’s real, true resume fodder! can you forward this to my hubby? I’m not sure he would entirely agree with you. #128578; That was supposed to be a reply to hester prynne punishment essay your reply to my original comment but darn Playbook is screwing everything up!

Playbook is a Blackberry Tablet (like an iPad)… they’re currently super cheap compared to other Tablets or the iPad as BB’s stock has drastically plummeted lately and they are trying to boost sales by imd business school lowering prices. Prynne! It makes for a good bargain for ems resume broke parents like my hubby and me. #128578; LOL. I’m sure he appreciates your much-desired-in-an-employee qualities! LOVE this! It is so easy to get bogged down by the minutia of raising young children that we don’t realize how challenging it can be to manage all those tasks. I am also amazed at the pyschoanalyzing (sp?) that goes on with figuring out how to diffuse squabbles over toys, get kids to clean up their room, and eat those pesky vegetables. Not to mention the multi-tasking! Thanks for the reminder!

Yes, we have some incredible skills, and prynne essay, they are very much applicable to lots of jobs. But if you were, like me, a SAHM for myself 20 years, good luck getting hired, no matter how intelligent, focused, skilled and hester punishment essay, willing you are to 5 paragraph and effect essay work. I wouldn’t trade a day of the time raising my kids, but it definitely didn’t help me when I wanted to start working again. I have given up the job search and I’m focusing on my blog and hester, other writing and I’m very, very happy. Love this post and your two resumes. The company I work part time for has been very successful in hiring SAHM’s who are coming back to work and all of these hires have been committed and essay use rhetoric to persuade themselves, fast learners that because moms have so much experience. I (heart) you more than ever.

You’ve jsut made me feel oh-so-good about myself! Wow I may need you to help me write my resume so I can get a job outside of academia for sure!! Teaching requires planning, supervision, design, etc, right? #128578; Oh and since I get about 500 emails a day I probably have “strong communication skills” #128578; WASAHM is pronounceable! It’s like wassup? but instead of a question it’s an hester essay exclamation. Wasaaaaaahm! It can be a greeting code between work at essay explaining how macbeth use rhetoric to persuade themselves, home moms. Most of the stuff we have to do all day to manage kids and hester prynne punishment, home are definitely applicable to the work force! Don’t forget that we also have to essay myself manipulate kids into doing things they don’t want to do, like dental appointments and cleaning their rooms. A good manager also has to do this with their team.

I say we deserve immediate placement in prynne punishment, upper-management simply based on the success of this skill. I love it! You’re absolutely right on essay about myself, every point. Hester Prynne Punishment Essay! Love the updated resume. I may just have to polish mine up a bit. #128521; That resume you made was so creative and spot on. Characters To Persuade! I work a few jobs part-time while M is in 3 day preschool.

I go to punishment students’ homes and teach them when they are unable to be in school for a medical/behavioral reason. I also supervise student teachers in school, my area for hester prynne punishment an online university. Plus the cheap paper, podcast (which isn’t really a job). Having T in school full time gives me time with Mags, but since I have had a lot of part-time jobs over the past 6 years (preschool teacher, Spanish teacher, math tutor, daycare provider) I am feeling ready to hester prynne punishment essay have just ONE consistent job. Ems Resume! It will probably happen when M goes to hester prynne punishment Kindergarten full time in another year…so I will be back for example of a 5 paragraph cause advice then. Really great post! I nominated you for an award today.

You should really start working on your speech. http://wp.me/p1LoLK-1pr. First of all, I love WASAHM (rhymes with Shazam!). I also love the blend of humor and hester prynne punishment, really good advice. Essay On All About Myself! Thanks for making me remember I’M RELEVANT outside my home, too! #128578; ce CV est formidable, une belle description des meres au foyer. This is so true! It made me laugh. You need to add an extra job into your life helping people with their resumes! (Thanks for linking up with #findingthefunny!) Once again, you were one of the most clicked links at hester prynne punishment essay, last week’s #findingthefunny. We’re featuring you tomorrow! #128578;

Wow! Very cool! Thank you! Its been a few years since you wrote this but would love some help. I have been a shame/caregiver for 5 years. On All About! I worked in human services before. Should i take all that off as it was 5 years ago? Do I list each family or umbrella them. Should I put caregiver/sahm as a title. so completely unsure of where to go. Especially since I am looking at hester prynne essay, not going back to human. sorry for the reply on a comment, it wouldn’t let me comment regularly unless I had FB.

Which I don’t. Wow, marvelous weblog layout! How lengthy have you been blogging for? you made running a blog glance easy. Ems Resume! The whole look of your web site is magnificent, let alone the content! I am currently looking for work now my children are making their own way in hester, life.

My problem is or rather are I had my children at a young age after leaving school with no qualifications. Imd Business School! I suffered from depression and punishment, although I gave my everything to my children I kind of left the world to get on where paper, with it with out me.I do have people skills but get nervous around too many people I kind of feel I don’t have any thing interesting to add to conversations so I tend to hester essay stay by myself, I know working will help me over come this as I am by my self most of the time while my children are at school and my husband works but I don’t know where to start. School Essays! I have done further education and hester prynne punishment, also worked to ems resume get a level 2 diploma in essay, retail but I have gave my CV out essay goals with not one reply. i live in Liverpool UK and hester prynne punishment essay, was just wondering if any body knew how to get my foot in the door in paid employment ( I have worked voluntary before) the extra cash would come in useful but mainly I just want to essay goals example find myself and meet new people. Prynne Punishment! If anyone reading this could help i would be most grateful. I have went through the example of a cause essay, samething as you! I have been a STHM for prynne the last 10yrs. Now that my youngest has started school full time. I am looking for about work and don’t know where to start.

I am a little shy at frist but come out of my shell after I get to know people. I have a GED and no other schooling. BUT I have raised 4 kids from punishment essay, age 5 to 13. I haven’t had time to volunteer but I have been at every soccer practie and on all about myself, game for the last 9 yrs for all my kids. Prynne Essay! between me and my sisters we have 9 kids and I do all their birthday party. for example 5 paragraph cause and effect essay cooking to games. Hester Prynne! sleep overs, play dates, trips here and there. School plays, concerts helped in class rooms and done everything at home to raise a family and take care of kids and a husband that works a full time job as a steel worker. I just dont know how to put that on essay on all about myself, paper. Hester Essay! I really need a job to help out with bills and to of a 5 paragraph cause and effect essay also get out of the house now that the kids arent home.

I can only do something part time during school hours because I need to put the kids on and off the bus. I NEED HELP lol. This is hester essay, absolutely perfect. I’m currently updating my resume, I’m a full-time, working, single-mom and prior to this I was that minus the essay explaining characters use rhetoric to persuade themselves, single and prior to that I was a Full-time, SAHM. I’m definitely using some of hester prynne punishment essay your bullets but how do you use it in you work history?

Bullets are easy it’s when i have to type all that stuff out cheap that it gets all “cutesy” aka “jumbled”.