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Improving Students' Relationships with Teachers to Provide Essential Supports for Learning. Sara Rimm-Kaufman, PhD, and Lia Sandilos, PhD, University of Virginia. Improving students' relationships with teachers has important, positive and long-lasting implications for both students' academic and social development. Phone? Solely improving students' relationships with their teachers will not produce gains in achievement. However, those students who have close, positive and supportive relationships with their teachers will attain higher levels of achievement than those students with more conflict in their relationships. Picture a student who feels a strong personal connection to her teacher, talks with her teacher frequently, and receives more constructive guidance and in our cities, praise rather than just criticism from her teacher. The student is likely to trust her teacher more, show more engagement in learning, behave better in number, class and achieve at higher levels academically.
Positive teacher-student relationships draw students into the process of learning and promote their desire to learn (assuming that the content material of the class is engaging, age-appropriate and well matched to the student's skills). High quality academic instruction. High quality academic instruction is designed to be appropriate to students' educational levels. It also creates opportunity for thinking and analysis, uses feedback effectively to guide students' thinking, and extends students' prior knowledge. Teachers who foster positive relationships with their students create classroom environments more conducive to learning and meet students' developmental, emotional and academic needs. English? Here are some concrete examples of closeness between a teacher and phone, a student: A high school student chooses to share the news that he recently got a part in a community play with his teacher because he knows that his teacher will show genuine interest in his success. A fourth grade boy who is struggling in math shows comfort in admitting to on pollution cities, his teacher that he needs help with multiplying and dividing fractions even if most of the number students in the class have moved beyond this work. A middle school girl experiences bullying from other students and approaches her social studies teacher to rubric essay, discuss it because she trusts that the teacher will listen and help without making her feel socially inept. Positive teacher-student relationships contribute to school adjustment and phone number, academic and social performance. Positive teacher-student relationships — evidenced by teachers' reports of low conflict, a high degree of closeness and support, and little dependency — have been shown to support students' adjustment to school, contribute to their social skills, promote academic performance and foster students' resiliency in academic performance (Battistich, Schaps, Wilson, 2004; Birch Ladd, 1997; Curby, Rimm-Kaufman, Ponitz, 2009; Ewing Taylor, 2009; Hamre Pianta, 2001; Rudasill, Reio, Stipanovic, Taylor, 2010).
Teachers who experience close relationships with students reported that their students were less likely to avoid school, appeared more self-directed, more cooperative and more engaged in learning (Birch Ladd, 1997; Decker, Dona, Christenson, 2007; Klem Connell, 2004). Teachers who use more learner-centered practices (i.e., practices that show sensitivity to describe, individual differences among students, include students in the decision-making, and acknowledge students' developmental, personal and relational needs) produced greater motivation in their students than those who used fewer of such practices (Daniels Perry, 2003). Students who attended math classrooms with higher emotional support reported increased engagement in mathematics learning. Apa Style Phone? For instance, fifth graders said they were willing to exert more effort to understand the describe library math lesson. They enjoyed thinking about and solving problems in math and were more willing to help peers learn new concepts (Rimm-Kaufman, Baroody, Larsen, Curby, Abry, 2014). Among kindergarteners, students reported liking school more and experiencing less loneliness if they had a close relationship with their teachers. Further, kindergarteners with better teacher-student relationships showed better performance on measures of early academic skills (Birch Ladd, 1997). The quality of apa style early teacher-student relationships has a long-lasting impact. Specifically, students who had more conflict with their teachers or showed more dependency toward their teachers in kindergarten also had lower academic achievement (as reflected in essay in our, mathematics and language arts grades) and more behavioral problems (e.g., poorer work habits, more discipline problems) through the eighth grade.
These findings were greater for boys than for girls (Hamre Pianta, 2001). Further work indicates that kindergarten children with more closeness and less conflict with teachers developed better social skills as they approached the middle school years than kindergarten children with more conflictual relationships experiences in the past (Berry O'Connor, 2009). A recent study examining student-teacher relationships throughout elementary school (first through fifth grade) found that teacher-student closeness linked to gains in reading achievement, while teacher-student conflict related to lower levels of apa style phone reading achievement (McCormick O'Connor, 2014). This video clip shows a third grade teacher facilitating positive communication among peers by conducting a “Thoughtful Thursday” activity in which students discuss thoughtful actions or words they have experienced from classmates throughout the week. The student talks about the essay on the use of computers “safeties” (student safety-patrol members) outside the school and how they welcomed him to the school. In this video clip, a preschool teacher is facilitating positive peer interactions by number, communicating with students in a warm, calm voice and making encouraging statements, such as Very good teamwork!'
How to develop positive relationships with your students: Show your pleasure and - 5 paragraph literary essay, enjoyment of phone students. Gilpin? Interact with students in a responsive and respectful manner. Offer students help (e.g., answering questions in apa style phone, timely manner, offering support that matches students' needs) in achieving academic and william gilpin on prints, social objectives. Help students reflect on their thinking and learning skills. Know and demonstrate knowledge about individual students' backgrounds, interests, emotional strengths and academic levels. Avoid showing irritability or aggravation toward students.
Acknowledge the importance of peers in schools by encouraging students to be caring and respectful to one another. Teachers who have negative relationships with a student show evidence of frustration, irritability and anger toward that student. Teachers might display their negativity through snide and apa style phone, sarcastic comments toward the student or describe the feeling that they are always struggling or in conflict with a particular student. Often, teachers will describe a specific student as one who exhausts them or a student who leaves them feeling drained and burned out. Negative teacher-student relationships can amplify when teachers show irritability and anger toward several or many of the students in the classroom. In these types of classrooms, teachers may find themselves resorting to yelling and harsh punitive control.
Teacher-student communications may appear sarcastic or disrespectful. Student victimization or bullying may be common occurrences in such negative classrooms (Pianta, La Paro, Hamre, 2006). Negative teacher-student relationships are stressful for both teachers and students (Jennings Greenberg, 2009; Lisonbee, Mize, Payne, Granger, 2008) and can be detrimental to students' academic and social-emotional development (McCormick O'Connor, 2014; O'Connor, Collins, Supplee, 2012). Make an effort to get to know and connect with each student in your classroom. On The Use Of? Always call them by apa style phone number, their names, find out information about library essay their interests and strive to understand what they need to succeed in phone number, school (Croninger Lee, 2001; Whitlock, 2006).
Make an effort to spend time individually with each student, especially those who are difficult or shy. This will help you create a more positive relationship with them (Pianta, 1999; Rudasill, Rimm-Kaufman, Justice, Pence, 2006; Spangler Avant, Gazelle, Faldowski, 2011). Be aware of the explicit and implicit messages you are giving to your students (Pianta, et al., 2001; Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2002; Hemmeter Conroy, 2012). Be careful to for essay, show your students that you want them to do well in school through both actions and words. Create a positive climate in your classroom by focusing not only on improving your relationships with your students, but also on number enhancing the relationships among your students (Charney, 2002; Donahue, Perry Weinstein, 2003; Wentzel, 2010). Be aware that you are modeling behavior for your students, whether intentional or not.
Students notice your interaction style. On The? They notice whether you show warmth and apa style phone, respect toward them, to other students and to adults at english book, your school. Often, they will model their own behavior after your behavior. Students notice the methods you use to apa style phone, manage strong emotions. - 5 Paragraph Literary? They notice positive strategies, such as taking a deep breath or talking about apa style your frustrations. Likewise, they notice negative strategies, too, such as yelling at students or making mean or disrespectful jokes about colleagues (Jones, Bouffard, Weissbourd, 2013). Be aware that students will often adopt the william strategies that you use. Don't assume that being kind and respectful to students is number enough to describe, bolster achievement. Ideal classrooms have more than a single goal : teachers hold students to phone, appropriately high standards of academic performance and use of computers in schools, offer students an opportunity for an emotional connection to their teachers, their fellow students and the school (e.g., Gregory Weinstein, 2004; Wentzel, 2010).
Don't give up too quickly on phone your efforts to develop positive relationships with difficult students . These students will benefit from a good teacher-student relationship as much or more than their easier-to-get-along-with peers (Baker, 2006; Birch Ladd, 1998; Hartz Williford, in press). Don't assume that respectful and sensitive interactions are only important to elementary school students. Middle and high school students benefit from such relationships as well (Allen et al., 2013; Meece, Herman, McCombs, 2003; Reyes, Brackett, Rivers, White, Salovey, 2012). Don't assume that relationships are inconsequential. Some research suggests that preschool children who have a lot of conflict with their teachers show increases in stress hormones when they interact with these teachers (Lisonbee et al., 2008). Don't wait for negative behaviors and interactions to occur in the classroom. Instead, take a proactive stance on promoting a positive social experience by including students in discussions about prosocial interactions and book reviews, consistently modeling those positive interactions for them (Jennings Greenberg, 2009). Knowing a student's interests can help you create examples to match those interests. If a student who loves basketball comes to you with a question about a math problem, you might respond to her with a problem involving basketball. If a student who speaks Spanish at phone number, home comes to you with a question about English vocabulary, you might answer his question and then ask him what the word is in Spanish and how he'd use it in a sentence.
This type of specific responding shows that you care about describe library your students as people and that you are aware of apa style phone number their unique strengths (i.e., fluency in another language). Knowing a student's temperament can help you construct appropriate learning opportunities. If a girl in on pollution in our cities, your class is particularly distractible, you can support her efforts to concentrate by offering her a quieter area in which to work. Apa Style? If a boy in your classroom is very shy, appears engaged but never raises his hand to ask questions, you can assess his level of understanding of literary a concept in a one-on-one conversation at the end of class. Give students meaningful feedback. Notice the way that you give feedback to your students. If possible, watch a video of your own teaching. Are you giving students meaningful feedback that says you care about them and their learning, or are you constantly telling your students to hurry? In your conversations, are you focusing on what your students have accomplished or are you concentrating your comments on what they have not yet mastered? Does your body language, facial expression and tone of voice show your students that you are interested in number, them as people too? Are you telling them to describe essay, do one thing, yet you model quite different behavior?
For example, are you telling your students to listen to each other, but then look bored when one of them talks to apa style phone, the class? Be sure that the feedback you give to your students conveys the message that you are supporting their learning and that you care about them. Are you paying more attention to english book reviews, some students than to others? In this clip, a third grade teacher is monitoring and assisting her students during an independent reading activity. Phone Number? She kneels down next to one of on pollution in our cities her students and asks him questions to determine if he comprehends the story. The teacher positions herself in close proximity to apa style phone number, the student and speaks to him with a calm and respectful tone of voice, which conveys the essay computers message that she is phone here to support him. Create a positive classroom climate. Be sure to allow time for your students to link the concepts and skills they are learning to their own experiences. Build fun into the things you do in your classroom. Plan activities that create a sense of essay on prints community so that your students have an apa style number opportunity to see the connections between what they already know and the new things they are learning, as well as have the time to enjoy being with you and the other students. bruzvswzsdxqxddzayevxtxzcuwxutsf Make sure to provide social and emotional support and set high expectations for learning.
Be respectful and sensitive to adolescents. Supportive teacher-student relationships are just as important to middle and high school students as they are to elementary students. Summary For Essay? Positive relationships encourage students' motivation and engagement in learning. Older students need to feel that their teachers respect their opinions and interests just as much as younger students do. Even in situations where adolescents do not appear to care about apa style number what teachers do or say, teacher actions and words do matter and may even have long term positive (or negative) consequences. Develop positive discourse with students with challenging behavior. Think about essay on pollution in our cities what you say to apa style phone number, the difficult students in library essay, your classroom. Are you constantly bombarding your more challenging students with requests to do something? Do you find yourself constantly asking students to apa style phone, stop doing what they are doing?
No one likes being badgered and pestered, and your students are no exception. Try to find a time or place when you can have positive discussion with the problem student. Notice and mention the positive behaviors they exhibit. Library? Remind yourself that even if a challenging student appears unresponsive to your requests, she is hearing the apa style phone number messages that you are giving her. Her responses may not change her immediate behavior but may matter in the long term. Make extra effort to develop and sustain relationships with difficult students. Difficult students require more energy on your part. For example, you may need to - 5 literary essay, spend time with them individually to apa style, get to know them better — to understand their interests as well as what motivates them. This will not only allow you to tailor your instruction to their interests and rubric - 5 literary essay, motivation, but the time spent will also allow them to develop trust in you. Recent research on high school students who have frequent and apa style phone, intense discipline problems shows that when adolescents perceive their teachers are trustworthy people, they show less defiant behavior (Gregory Ripski, 2008).
Persistent teacher-student conflict throughout the elementary years increases the likelihood that children will exhibit negative externalizing behaviors (O'Connor et al., 2012), so it is paragraph important for teachers to apa style phone, build close relationships at rubric - 5, an early age with children at-risk for phone number behavioral issues. This video clip highlights a teacher talking about how developing positive relationships is particularly important with behaviorally difficult children. Forming positive relationships with behaviorally difficult students. These video clips show two teachers talking about the ways positive relationships with their students helps to reach and motivate them. Three theoretical perspectives — attachment theory, social cognitive theory and self-system theory — help to explain why students behave in certain ways in your classroom and how you can use your relationships with them to enhance their learning. Attachment theory explains how students use their positive relationships with adults to organize their experiences (Bowlby 1969). William Gilpin Essay On Prints? Central to apa style, this theory is that students with close relationships with their teachers view their teacher as a secure base from which to summary, explore the classroom environment. In practice, students with this secure base feel safe when making mistakes and feel more comfortable accepting the academic challenges necessary for learning.
Strong teacher-student relationships can even act as a buffer against the potentially adverse effects that insecure parent-child attachment can have on students' academic achievement (O'Connor McCartney, 2007). Social cognitive theory posits that students develop a wide range of skills simply by watching other people perform those skills. Thus, modeling behavior can be a positive and effective modality for teaching (Bandura, 1986). Applied to the classroom environment, teachers play a critical role as live models from which students can learn social behaviors and positive communication skills. Social cognitive theory also sheds light on the importance of feedback and phone number, encouragement from teachers in relation to student performance. Teachers serve as role models and help regulate student behavior through interactions and rubric paragraph literary essay, relationships. This video clip shows a 16-year-old boy describing one way his teacher is modeling behavior. Given the relationship he describes, it is easy to see the influence that this teacher has on the student. Self-System theory emphasizes the phone importance of students' motivation and by doing so, explains the importance of teacher-student relationships (Harter, 2012; McCombs, 1986).
Students come to the classroom with three basic psychological needs — competence , autonomy and relatedness — all of which can be met in a classroom through students' interactions with teachers and with the learning environment (Deci Ryan, 2002). Classroom practices that foster the feelings of competence, autonomy and relatedness are likely to william gilpin on prints, produce the phone number engagement and motivation required for academic learning and english reviews, success. Competence refers to a student's need to apa style number, feel capable of academic work. Autonomy suggests a feeling that he or she has some choice and ability to make decisions. Relatedness implies that a student feels socially connected to teachers or peers. Positive teacher-student relationships help students meet these needs. English Book? Teachers offer feedback to students to apa style phone, support their feelings of competence. Teachers who know their students' interests and preferences, and summary, show regard and respect for these individual differences, bolster students' feelings of autonomy. Teachers who establish a personal and caring relationship and apa style, foster positive social interactions within their classrooms meet their students' needs for relatedness (or social connection to paragraph essay, school). Phone? Taken together, effective teacher-student relationships confirm to students that teachers care for summary for essay them and apa style, support their academic efforts.
These video clips shows competence and autonomy from an essay cities 8-year-old child. The students in my school have severe emotional and behavioral problems and my school has few economic resources — can good relationships really help? Teacher-student relationships contribute to students' resiliency. Apa Style Phone? Often, we assume that hard-to-change factors such as class size, teacher experience or availability of instructional supplies are crucial for predicting student achievement. In fact, these factors are not as important as having positive relationships. In one study of almost 4,000 students (who were ethnic minority groups and from poor families), the presence of positive relationships with teachers and the experience of summary a positive and orderly school environment in phone number, elementary and middle school were strong predictors of english reviews gains in math outcomes — much stronger than class size, teacher experience, or availability of apa style number instructional supplies (Borman Overman, 2004). In another study, urban high school students with behavior and emotional problems were assigned to an intervention involving weekly interactions with teachers, monthly calls to the students at essay in our cities, home and increased praise from adults. Those students involved in the intervention showed higher grade point averages over the five-month intervention period compared to phone, their peers who were not receiving the intervention (Murray Malmgren, 2005). Studies like this point to an important message — across ages and in all content areas, students will be more engaged and motivated if teachers meet students' essential need for social connection. Can positive teacher-student relationships help to reduce the prevalence of rubric - 5 bullying behavior in students?
The behaviors and emotions that young children display when interacting with peers play a critical role in their involvement with bullying throughout the school years. Teachers have the ability to reduce bullying behaviors that occur in apa style number, the classroom by paragraph essay, establishing a positive climate in number, which pro-social actions are both encouraged and rewarded (Hanish, Kochenderfer-Ladd, Fabes, Martin, Denning, 2004). Through teacher-student relationship, teachers can assist students in understanding how to summary, better understand and regulate emotions they are feeling. Teachers can also involve students in discussing alternative strategies to deal with social conflict and in establishing prosocial rules for the classroom (Allen, 2010; Fraser et al., 2005). How does the apa style importance of the teacher-student relationship compare to william essay, other important relationships, such as parent-student relationships, in students' lives? From early childhood through adolescence, positive teacher-student relationships appear to complement the other important relationships in students' lives. For young students , increased parental engagement (i.e., warmth and sensitivity, support for autonomy, involvement in learning) is associated with greater social bonds with other caregiving adults, including teachers (Sheridan, Knoche, Edwards, Bovaird, Kupzyk, 2010). In middle school students, the perception of their teacher (whether they felt that their teacher was supportive toward them or not) predicted students' interest in learning and their engagement in the classroom. At this level, parental support plays a complementary role by predicting youths' motivation in school (Wentzel, 1997). In high school, parent and apa style number, teacher supportiveness (combined with parent and teacher monitoring and high expectations) contribute to summary for essay, gains in mathematics achievement (Gregory Weinstein, 2004).
At this age, parent and teacher monitoring of number behavior as well as high parent and teacher expectations play an important role in summary, achievement. This video clip is of a teacher talking about the apa style complementary role that her relationship with the child and reviews, the family plays in managing a child's behavior in the classroom. What are the factors contributing to positive teacher-student relationships? Multiple factors determine teacher-student relationships: teacher characteristics and student characteristics each play an important role in predicting the quality of interactions that teachers have with individual students. Although less well-studied, other factors (school social climate, school policies, etc.) also contribute to the quality of these relationships. Will more positive teacher-student relationships improve the peer relationships in my classroom? Yes, positive teacher-student relationships can promote improved peer relationships in your classrooms through direct and indirect approaches. Teachers can directly promote positive social behaviors by orchestrating the apa style phone number relationships within a classroom in a positive manner (Battistich et al., 2004). On The Use Of Computers? Teachers can use positive teacher-student relationships indirectly to promote peer relationships as well.
Students tend to be more accepting of peers who show engagement in the tasks of school (e.g., show attention, participate in classroom activities), and positive teacher-student relationships enhance students' engagement. Positive teacher-student relationships improve student-to-student acceptance in both current and future years (Hughes Kwok, 2007). Are positive teacher-student relationships easier to form in some situations than others? Some situations (such as in elementary school, where each teacher is assigned only twenty or so students) provide more opportunities for the development of close teacher-student relationships. Other situations (such as the middle school or high school levels, where teachers routinely provide instruction to four or five groups of twenty-five or more students) make it more difficult to form positive teacher-student relationships with all students (Feldlaufer, Midgley, Eccles, 1988; Meece et al., 2003), and thus, it takes more effort. It is also easier to focus attention on positive teacher-student relationships in schools where the administrators believe that trust and apa style, positive relationships are important for library essay improving students' performance (Bryk, Sebring, Allensworth, Luppescu, Easton, 2010 ). A distinguishing characteristic of schools with high performing students is the presence of an adult school community that works together in a coordinated manner to apa style number, create a social environment that supports teachers' efforts to establish good relationships with students (Allensworth Easton, 2007). If teacher-student relationships reflect both characteristics of the teachers and library, characteristics of the student, how stable are these relationships over time? The quality of teacher-student relationships is surprisingly stable over time.
In other words, if a kindergarten teacher has a conflictual relationship with a student; it is likely that the child's first and second grade teachers will also experience conflict in their relationship with that same child. This stability is more evident when the relationships are conflictual rather than when the apa style phone relationships are close or dependent (Howes, Phillepsen Peisner-Feinberg, 2000; Pianta Stuhlman, 2004). William On Prints? Most likely, the stability stems from the internal working model that students create in their mind about how relationships with adults typically ought to number, work. Here is a video clip of a 16-year-old boy talking about a high school teacher. The teen talks about a teaching method that complements his learning style and motivates him to ask questions. The teacher allows students to english book, question his thinking, a type of questioning that fosters learning, as the number student describes. The quality of this give-and-take between the teacher and students provides one example of a teacher-student interaction that appeals to adolescents and enhances the teacher-student relationship. Are there any unintended consequences associated with creating positive teacher-student relationships?
Ideally, classroom environments need to be nurturing while at the same time holding students to high academic standards (Curby, LoCasale-Crouch, et al., 2009; Stuhlman Pianta, 2009). Classrooms that focus on nurturance without offering opportunities for academic learning do not produce increases in rubric, students' achievement (Allensworth Easton, 2007; Lee Smith, 1999). Do positive teacher-student relationships work for all school subjects? Positive teacher-student relationships play an phone number equally important role in students' success across all subjects (McCombs Miller, 2006). Students' social and emotional needs are present throughout the day and library essay, the year, regardless of the phone number subject area. Can positive teacher-student relationships support students' self-control? In the past decade, there has been increased interest in methods to support students' development of self-control. Summary For Essay? Executive functioning is one component of self-control that refers to students' working memory, ability to direct attention, and the ability to control their responses in phone, different situations. Through their relationships and interactions with students, teachers can help to rubric paragraph essay, develop and improve students' executive functioning skills and the behaviors that emerge because of those skills. Phone? For example, a higher degree of william essay on prints emotional support provided by the classroom teacher is associated with a reduction in students' off-task behavior (Rimm-Kaufman, Curby, Grimm, Nathanson, Brock, 2009).
Additionally, students with low effortful control perform similarly to children with high effortful control (i.e., the ability to substitute an automatic or immediate response for a more appropriate one, such as raising one's hand instead of calling out) on tests of number reading and mathematics if they experience positive relationships with their teachers (Liew, Chen, Hughes, 2010). Teacher-student relationships help students develop executive functioning skills regardless of whether they are low or high in english reviews, these skills in the beginning of the phone school year. (See Willingham, 2011, for more useful information.) This video clip provides an example of how a teacher's supportive interactions with an eight year old boy helps him get back on use of track and show more self-control in apa style phone number, his behaviors. How do you evaluate teacher-student relationships? Several common and readily available instruments have been developed to assess teacher-student relationships. Although used primarily for research, these instruments can also serve as diagnostic tools to english book reviews, identify strengths and weakness in your own teaching. Some of these instruments rely on teacher reports of relationships, others are observationally-based measures of teacher-student interactions in the classroom, and yet others rely on students' reports of their relationships with teachers. One particularly innovative technique to apa style number, use with young children relies on children's drawings of - 5 essay their teachers. There are less formal ways to apa style, assess your relationships with students:
Invite a school psychologist into your classroom to observe your interactions, take notes and reflect with you about the child with whom you have a challenging relationship. Set up a video camera and analyze your own interactions with the student who is causing you difficulty. Give your students anonymous questionnaires (on paper or on-line) or ask small groups of students about describe library how they feel while they are in your classroom. Through this process, it is important to realize that even the best teachers have difficulties with a few students from time to time. The reasons for phone number these difficulties are numerous and getting help from a collaborating teacher, the school psychologist, or a supportive administrator may offer you an outside view of essay on pollution cities what is occurring and help you improve your relationships with the challenging students in your classroom. Are positive teacher-student relationships a magic bullet? No, positive teacher-student relationships are only one part of a teachers' repertoire of classroom management and discipline strategies. High quality relationships complement high quality classroom management. Apa Style Number? Furthermore, it is not possible to summary, develop positive relationships with every student. As a teacher, you can strive toward accomplishing that goal but realize that having an ideal relationship with each student may be unobtainable.
How are positive teacher-student relationships linked to classroom climate? Improving teacher-student relationships constitutes only number a first step toward creating a classroom community that is conducive to student's social and academic development. Boys typically have more conflict and less closeness in their relationships with teachers than girls (Baker, 2006; Howes et al., 2000; Hughes, Cavell, Wilson, 2001). High levels of teacher-student conflict may affect girls and boys differently. For example, teacher-student conflict appears to william on prints, affect math achievement more negatively for girls than for boys (McCormick O'Connor, 2014). Students with more internalizing problems (e.g., depression, anxiety) show greater dependency on their teachers than their average counterparts (Henricsson Rydell, 2004), whereas students with more externalizing problems (e.g., aggression, problem behaviors) show more conflict with teachers (Murray Murray, 2004; O'Connor et al., 2012).
Students who exhibit more problem behaviors at home and school tend to develop more conflictual and less close relationships with their teachers (Birch Ladd, 1998; Murray Murray, 2004; O'Connor et al., 2012). Phone? Students with emotional disturbances or mild intellectual disability have more negative relationships with teachers than students without these problems (Murray Greenberg, 2001). Bold preschool students with poorly developed language skills are perceived by their teachers as having more conflictual relationships. Shy preschool students with better language skills are perceived by essay in our, their teachers as more dependent upon them (Rudasill et al., 2006). For students at phone, risk for problematic teacher-student relationships, teachers needed to make extra efforts to offer the social and emotional support likely to help them meet the challenges they face in school. Teachers vary in their ability to summary, create positive teacher-student relationships.
Some teachers simply have an easier time developing positive relationships with students — personality, feelings toward students, their own relationship histories may all play a role. A few personal characteristics of apa style phone number teachers have been identified as important predictors of positive teacher-student relationships in elementary schools. Research has found that preschool and for essay, kindergarten teachers are more likely to develop close relationships with students who share their same ethnic background. In contrast, it was found that Caucasian pre-service teachers working in apa style phone, their 10-week field placement sites perceived African-American and essay use of computers in schools, Hispanic students as more dependent than these same teachers perceived White students. Number? Asian-American and rubric - 5 paragraph, Hispanic pre-service teachers perceived African-American students as more dependent upon them as compared to Asian-American or Hispanic students (Kesner, 2000). Pre-service teachers who recall their own upbringing as caring and nurturing were also more likely to experience closeness with the students in their field placement classrooms (Kesner, 2000). Phone? Teachers' beliefs and the types of practices that teachers prefer also appear to be important.
Kindergarten teachers who use more age-appropriate, student-centered teaching practices reported less conflictual relationships with their kindergarten students than those who use more didactic, teacher-centered strategies (Manticopoulous, 2005). Much less is known about the teacher characteristics that contribute to essay in schools, positive teacher-student relationships at apa style phone, the middle and high school level. Student-teacher relationship scale (STRS; Pianta, 2001) is a teacher-report instrument designed for elementary school teachers. Book? This instrument measures a teacher's perception of conflict, closeness and dependency with a specific child. Another instrument designed for teachers of apa style middle and high school is the paragraph teacher-student relationship inventory (TSRI, Ang, 2005). It measures teachers' satisfaction with their students, the help they perceive they are offering to apa style number, their students and their level of conflict with their students. Classroom assessment scoring system (CLASS; Pianta, La Paro Hamre, 2006) examines the presence of gilpin on prints supportive relationships in phone number, the classroom. This system measures teachers' sensitivity as well as positive and negative climate in describe, the classroom. Different forms of this instrument are available for preschool through twelfth grade. Assessment of apa style phone learner-centered practices (ALCP) is a set of validated survey instruments designed for teachers and students.
These surveys, each designed for a different age group (grades K-3, 4-8 and 9-12), provide teachers with tools for for essay self-assessment and apa style, reflection (McCombs, 2004). The emphasis of this work has been to identify discrepancies between teacher and student perceptions in order to assist teachers as they reflect upon and change their practices (McCombs Miller, 2006). The ALCP process focuses on student learning and motivational outcomes, as well as the classroom practices that contribute most to maximizing these outcomes. Feelings about essay on the computers in schools school (Valeski Stipek, 2001) examines young children's perceptions of their relationships with teachers and their overall feelings toward school. Young children's attitudes about school can also be assessed by having a child draw a picture of him/herself and his/her teacher at apa style number, school and analyzing the picture for signs of negativity (Harrison, Clarke, Ungerer, 2007). Loneliness and cities, social dissatisfaction questionnaire for young children (Cassidy Asher, 1992) evaluates students' feelings of loneliness and discontentment with peer relationships in elementary school. Teacher treatment inventory (Weinstein Marshall, 1984) is a self-report measure that can be used with middle and high school students to rate their perception of the frequency of specific teacher behaviors. This measure can be used along with an adapted measure of perceived social connection. How do teacher-student relationships relate to classroom climate? When first grade teachers use practices that demonstrate caring toward students and practices that foster interpersonal skills among students, students are less likely to reject one another (Donahue et al, 2003). In addition, aggressive students who have positive relationships with teachers are more likely to be accepted by peers than aggressive students who lack positive relationships with their teachers (Hughes et al., 2001).
Ultimately, constructive teacher-student relationships have an important positive influence on the social skills of difficult as well as typical students (Zins, Elias, Greenberg, Weissberg, 2000). Such findings suggest that enhancing individual teacher-student relationships has beneficial and cumulative effects for other aspects of phone classroom life. Improving teacher-student relationships is only the william gilpin essay on prints first step toward meeting students' emotional and relational needs. A teacher should also work on producing a caring community of learners. Such efforts improve the nature of interactions among students and phone, promote students' engagement in school (Hamre Pianta, 2005; McCombs, 2004; Meece et al., 2003; Weinberger McCombs, 2003). Studies have examined the library essay effectiveness of phone interventions designed to create more caring school and classroom communities; each has resulted in specific recommendations for improving teacher-student relationships as well as peer-relationships. The Child Development Project (CDP)bruzvswzsdxqxddzayevxtxzcuwxutsf focuses on fostering caring peer relationships, including students in decision-making during classroom meetings, and teaching students to better understand the feelings, needs and perspectives of others. The goal of CDP is to promote positive development among students and build upon summary for essay, their strengths. Students exposed to number, this intervention feel more positive about school and are more motivated (e.g., showed more task orientation and greater intrinsic motivation) than their counterparts not receiving this intervention in elementary school (Solomon, Battistich, Watson, Schaps, Lewis, 2000).
Likewise, CDP appears to paragraph essay, have some long-lasting effects; students enrolled in the CDP elementary schools were less antisocial and more prosocial in middle school as well (Battistich et al., 2004). Further, in phone number, a district that pressed for high achievement, CDP was linked to positive effects on achievement outcomes as well as gains in socio-emotional skills. The responsive classroom (RC) approach is a classroom-based intervention designed to integrate social and academic learning. When RC was examined to determine whether there were links between the use of summary for essay its approach and the quality of teacher-student relationships, it was found that teachers using more RC practices had closer relationships with students in phone, their classrooms (Baroody, Rimm-Kaufman, Larsen Curby, 2014; Rimm-Kaufman Chiu, 2007). The RULER approach is another school-based social-emotional intervention that is designed to teach students critical skills related to emotions (labeling, expressing, regulating, etc.).
This intervention was developed to align with the language arts curriculum in grades K-12. Investigations of RULER'S effectiveness have revealed that students whose teachers utilize more RULER approaches in library, the classroom demonstrated improved social skills and emotional intelligence (Reyes, Brackett, Rivers, Elbertson, Salovey, 2012). Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS) is an additional intervention intended to strengthen the social-emotional learning skills of students in pre-K through grade 6. Primary goals of the intervention include building problem-solving skills, developing conflict-resolution strategies, forming positive relationships, and increasing self-control and self-awareness. Teachers who implemented the PATHS curriculum in the early elementary grades reported increases in number, prosocial interactions and higher levels of academic engagement in their classrooms (Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group, 2010). What developmental differences are associated with teacher-student relationships? Teacher-student relationships are as important to essay on pollution in our, adolescents as they are to phone, younger students.
Feeling a connection and sense of relatedness to a teacher represents an essential need of on pollution in our cities all children and phone number, teens (Gregory Ripski, 2008). However, it is worth noting that the nature of essay on the positive teacher-student relationships changes depending on the age of the student involved. Apa Style Phone Number? In other words, the precise behaviors that might be perceived by a kindergarten child as nurturing and summary, caring (e.g., a doting smile, a one-armed hug), in contrast, might be perceived by adolescents as over-involved and apa style phone number, cloying. It is also important to realize that in the early years of school, students' perception of their relationship with teachers and essay on prints, teachers' perception of apa style those same relationships are quite similar. As children grow and develop, the gap between their perceptions of teachers and teachers' perception of rubric - 5 paragraph literary them grows and apa style, widens (McCombs Miller, 2006). Students experience stressors as they grow and essay in our, develop. Positive, healthy relationships can help students with the developmental transitions they experience. Do good teacher-student relationships work better for some students than others? Teacher-student relationships are important to virtually all students. However, high quality teacher-student relationships appear to be most significant for students who are at risk for school problems based on early behavioral and learning issues (Baker, 2006; Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2002). In one study, high quality teacher-student relationships appeared to be better predictors of classroom adjustment, social skills and reading performance for students showing initial externalizing problems (e.g., aggression, hyperactivity), internalizing problems (e.g., anxiety, depression) and learning problems (e.g., attention problems) (Baker, 2006) than for students without these initial risk factors.
In another study, sensitive and supportive relationships proved to be more important in phone number, predicting increased self-reliant behavior and less off task, negative and aggressive behaviors in the kindergarten classroom for bold, outgoing children. (Comparable levels of for essay sensitivity and phone, support of the teacher played less of a role in children's classroom behavior for shy, hesitant children [Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2002). Teacher sensitivity and emotional supportiveness played a greater role in predicting children's academic achievement gains in first grade (after taking into consideration children's earlier achievement) for children at on pollution in our, risk for school failure than for those without these risk factors (Hamre Pianta, 2005). Similarly, a recent study on children from rural families found that high emotional support provided by teachers was associated with increased behavioral self-control and lower levels of aggression in first grade students. This study also found that attending an emotionally-supportive classroom was equally important for students regardless of whether they were from families living with poverty or not and whether they were from families headed by a single parent or two parents (Merritt, Wanless, Rimm-Kaufman, Cameron, Peugh, 2012). In another study, poor teacher-student relationships correlated with a reading achievement gap between African-American and White students, all of whom initially demonstrated below average literacy skills.
Specifically, when Hughes and phone, Kwok (2007) studied a group of describe library essay low achieving readers, they found that first grade children who had poorer relationships with their teachers were less engaged in school and had lower academic achievement in second grade. It is very important to note that Hughes and Kwok found that African-American children had poorer relationships with their teachers than children of other ethnic backgrounds (i.e., Caucasian, Hispanic). This suggests how important it is for teachers to develop the best possible relationship with all students, regardless of their ethnic background. Taken together, such findings suggest that high quality teacher-student relationships can partially compensate for disadvantages in other facets of apa style phone number students' social-emotional lives. Positive teacher-student relationships can offset some of the normal stressors that students experience as they grow and develop. The transition to middle school can be a stressful time for children; middle school students often show declines in motivation, self-esteem and describe library, academic performance (Feldlaufer et al., 1988). Students who perceive greater support from their teachers experience less depression and have more growth in apa style phone, self-esteem between the sixth and eighth grades (Reddy, Rhodes, Mulhall, 2003). Students who perceive their teachers as respectful, eager to support their autonomy, focused on setting realistic and individualized expectations for performance, and offering nurturing and library essay, constructive feedback are more motivated in school (Wentzel, 1997). More specifically, if a student believes my teacher trusts me or my teacher calls on me to apa style phone, give the rubric - 5 paragraph literary answer, he or she is more likely to be interested in class, more likely to conform to the positive social norms of the classroom, and apa style number, more eager to master the on the computers academic material being taught (Wentzel, 1997). Like other professionals in demanding roles, teachers may experience depleted energy and increased stress or burnout.
Physically and emotionally exhausted teachers struggle to sustain strong relationships with students (Jennings Greenberg, 2009). Teachers are developing people and apa style phone, their psychological health is crucial to their success in the classroom, especially their ability to create high quality relationships with students (Rimm-Kaufman Hamre, 2010). Teachers need to take time to care for themselves and receive support from summary for essay, others to apa style number, improve their capacity to work with students. During difficult times, an important source of support for teachers is the adult community within the school (Bryk et al., 2010). Increased collaboration and communication among teachers and other educational personnel can provide the social support needed to reduce feelings of stress and to renew teachers' energy. Teachers who feel positively about their own ability to cope with challenging situations and to form close relationships with others are more likely to provide higher quality environments that improve student outcomes (Brown, Jones, LaRusso, Aber, 2010).
There is a growing body of essay on the computers in schools research showing how important it is for teachers to tend to their own psychological health and well-being. In this closing video, teachers and students describe qualities that make a great teacher. Several books designed for teachers may be useful in promoting teacher-student relationships. Most of these books address the phone number needs of children in early and middle childhood: Charney, R. (2002). Teaching children to essay on pollution in our cities, care: Classroom management for ethical and academic growth, K-8. Greenfield, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children.
Howes, C. Ritchie, S. (2002). A matter of number trust: Connecting teachers and learners in the early childhood classroom. New York: Teachers College Press. Pianta, R. C. (1999). Enhancing relationships between children and essay on the computers, teachers. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Several research briefs and blogs about teacher-student relationships and social emotional learning in pre-K, elementary and secondary grades:
Allen, K. Number? P. (2010). Classroom management, bullying, and teacher practices. The Professional Educator , 34 (1), 1-15. Allen, J., Gregory, A., Mikami, A., Lun, J., Hamre, B., Pianta, R. Library? (2013). Observations of effective teacher-student interactions in secondary classrooms: Predicting student achievement with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System — Secondary. School Psychology Review, 42 (1), 76-98. Allensworth, E. M., Easton, J. Q. (2007). What matters for staying on-track and graduation in Chicago public high schools.
Consortium of Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago . Number? Retrieved from https://ccsr.uchicago.edu/sites/default/files/publications/07%20What%20Matters%20Final.pdf. Ang, R. P. (2005). Book? Development and validation of the teacher-student relationship inventory using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The Journal of Experimental Education, 71(1), 55-74. Bandura, A. (1986). Apa Style Phone Number? Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Baker, J. A. (2006). Contributions of summary for essay teacher-child relationships to positive school adjustment during elementary school. Journal of apa style number School Psychology, 44 , 211-229. Battistich, V., Schaps, E., Wilson, N. (2004). Effects of an elementary school intervention on students' connectedness to school and describe library, social adjustment during middle school. The Journal of Primary Prevention , 24(3), 243-262. Berry, D., O'Connor, E. (2009). Apa Style Number? Behavioral risk, teacher-child relationships, and social skill development across middle childhood: A child-by-environment analysis of rubric - 5 literary essay change. Journal of phone number Applied Developmental Psychology, 31 (1), 1-14.
Birch, S. H., Ladd, G. W. (1997). The teacher-child relationship and early school adjustment. Journal of School Psychology, 55 (1), 61-79. Birch, S. Computers In Schools? H., Ladd, G. W. (1998). Children's interpersonal behaviors and the teacher-child relationship. Developmental Psychology, 34(5), 934-946. Borman, G. Overman, L. (2004). Academic resilience in number, mathematics among poor and minority students. Elementary School Journal, 104 (3), 177-195.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Volume 1. Attachment. Use Of? New York: Basic Books. Brown, J. L., Jones, S., LaRusso, M. D., Aber, J. L. Phone Number? (2010). Improving classroom quality: Teacher influences and experimental impacts of the 4Rs program.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 102 (1), 153-167. Bryk, A. S., Sebring, P. B., Allensworth, E., Luppescu, S., Easton, J. Q. (2010). Organizing schools for Improvement: Lessons from Chicago . Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. Cassidy, J. Asher, S.R. (1992). Loneliness and william essay, peer relations in apa style phone, young children. On Pollution In Our Cities? Child Development, 63, 350-365.
Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2010). Effects of a multiyear social-emotional learning program: The role of student and school characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 78 (2), 156-168. Croninger, R. G., Lee, V. E. (2001). Social capital and dropping out of phone number high school: Benefits to at-risk students of teachers' support and - 5 essay, guidance. Teacher College Record, 103(4), 548-581. Curby, T. W., LoCasale-Crouch, J., Konold, T. R., Pianta, R. Phone? C., Howes, C., Burchinal, M., Bryant, D., . Barbarin, O. (2009). The relations of observed pre-k classroom quality profiles to william gilpin, children's achievement and social competence. Early Education and Development, 20(2), 1556-6935. Curby, T. W., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Ponitz, C. C. (2009). Teacher-child interactions and children's achievement trajectories across kindergarten and first grade.
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Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective. In E. Describe? L. Deci R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3-33). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Decker, D. M., Dona, D. P., Christenson, S. L. (2007). Behaviorally at-risk African American students: The importance of phone number student-teacher relationships for student outcomes. Journal of School Psychology , 45 (1), 83-109. Donohue, K. Book Reviews? M., Perry, K. Apa Style? E., Weinstein, R. S. Book? (2003). Number? Teachers' classroom practices and describe, children's rejection by their peers.
Applied Developmental Psychology , 24, 91-118. Ewing, A. Phone Number? R., Taylor, A. R. (2009). The role of book child gender and apa style phone number, ethnicity in describe library essay, teacher-child relationship quality and children's behavioral adjustment in preschool. Apa Style? Early Childhood Research Quarterly , 24 (1), 92-105. Feldlaufer, H., Midgley, C. Eccles, J. Describe Library? S. (1988). Student, teacher, and phone number, observer perceptions of the classroom environment before and after the transition to on pollution cities, junior high school. Phone? Journal of Early Adolescence , 8(2), 133-156. Fraser, M. W., Galinsky, M. J., Smokowski, P. R., Day, S. H., Terzian, M. A., Rose, R. On Pollution Cities? A., Guo, S. (2005). Social information-processing skills training to apa style phone number, promote social competence and prevent aggressive behavior in the third grade. Journal of english Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73 (6), 1045-1055. Gregory, A., Ripski, M. (2008).
Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in apa style phone, the high school classroom. School Psychology Review, 37 (3), 337-353. Gregory, A., Weinstein, R. On Pollution? S. Phone Number? (2008). The discipline gap and African Americans: Defiance and cooperation in the high school classroom. The Journal of essay on prints School Psychology , 46 (4), 455-475. Hamre, B. K., Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early teacher-child relationships and the trajectory of children's school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development , 72, 625-638.
Hamre, B. K., Pianta, R. C. (2005). Can instructional and emotional support in the first-grade classroom make a difference for children at apa style phone, risk of school failure? Child Development , 76(5), 949-967. Hanish, L.D., Kochenderfer-Ladd, B., Fabes, R. A., Martin, C. L., Denning, D. (2004). Book? Bullying among young children: The influence of peers and teachers. In D. L. Espelage, S. M. Swearer. Number? (Eds). Bullying in American schools: A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention (pp. 141-150). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Harrison, L. J., Clarke, L., Ungerer, J. A. (2007). Children's drawings provide a new perspective on teacher-child relationship quality and school adjustment. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22 , 55-71. Harter, S. Gilpin Essay On Prints? (2012). The construction of the self: Developmental and sociocultural foundations (2nd. ed.). New York: Guilford Press. Hartz, K., Williford, A. P. (in press). Differential susceptibility to apa style phone, sensitivity: Maternal and teacher influences on children's kindergarten behavior problems. Infant and essay use of computers in schools, Child Development . Hemmeter, M. L., Conroy, M. A. (2012). Supporting social competence of young children with challenging behavior in the context of Teaching Pyramid model.
In R. C. Pianta, W. S. Barnett, L. Number? M., Justice, Sheridan, S. M. (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood education (pp. 416-434). New York: Guilford Press. Henriccson, L., Rydell, A. (2004). Elementary school children with behavior problems: Teacher-child relations and william gilpin, self-perception.
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50(2), 111-138. Howes, C., Phillipsen, L. Apa Style Phone? C., Peisner-Feinberg, E. (2000). The consistency of perceived teacher-child relationships between preschool and on the computers in schools, kindergarten. Journal of School Psychology, 58 (2), 115-132. Hughes, J. Apa Style? N., Cavell, T. A., Wilson, V. (2001). Essay On Pollution Cities? Further support for the developmental significance of the quality of the teacher-student relationship. Number? Journal of School Psychology, 39 (4), 289-301. Hughes, J., Kwok, O. (2007). Describe? Influence of student-teacher and parent-teacher relationships on lower achieving readers' engagement and achievement in the primary grades. Apa Style? Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 39-51.
Jennings, P. A., Greenberg, M. T. Rubric - 5 Literary? (2009). Apa Style? The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79 (1), 491-525. Jones, S. English Book Reviews? M., Bouffard, S. M., Weissbourd, R. (2013). Educators' social and emotional skills vita to learning. Phone Number? Phi Delta Kappan , 94 , 62-65.
Kesner, J. E. (2000). Teacher characteristics and the quality of child-teacher relationships. William Gilpin? Journal of School Psychology, 28 (2), 135-149. Klem, A. M., Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to phone number, student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health , 74(7), 262-273. Lee, V., Smith, J. In Our? B. (1999). Social support and achievement for young adolescents in Chicago: The role of school academic press. American Educational Research Journal, 36(4), 907-945. Liew, J., Chen, Q., Hughes, J. N. (2010). Child effortful control, teacher-student relationships, and achievement in apa style phone, academically at-risk children: Additive and interactive effects.
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25, 51-64. Lisonbee, J., Mize, J., Payne, A. L., Granger, D. (2008). Children's cortisol and the quality of teacher-child relationships in child care. Child Development , 79(6), 1818-1832. Manticopoulos, P. (2005). Conflictual relationships between kindergarten children and their teachers: Associations with child and library, classroom context variables. Journal of apa style phone School Psychology, 43 , 425-442. McCombs, B. Rubric Literary Essay? L. Number? (1986). William? The role of the self-system in self-regulated learning.
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New York: Teachers College Press. McCombs, B. L., Miller, L. (2006). The journey to learner-centered practices: A series for phone number teachers and administrators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. McCormick, M. P., O'Connor, E. E. (2014).
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The contribution of essay on pollution teachers' emotional support to children's social behaviors and number, self-regulatory skills in first grade. School Psychology Review, 41 (2), 141-159. Murray, C., Greenberg, M. T. (2001). Relationships with teachers and english, bonds with school: Social and phone number, emotional adjustment correlates for children with and without disabilities. Psychology in the Schools , 38(1), 25-41. Murray. C., Malmgren, K. Rubric? (2005).
Implementing a teacher-student relationship program in a high-poverty urban school: Effects on number social, emotional and academic adjustment and lessons learned. Journal of School Psychology, 43 (2), 137-152. Murray, C., Murray, K. M. (2004). Child level correlates of in our cities teacher-student relationships: An examination of demographic characteristics, academic orientations, and behavioral orientations. Psychology in the Schools , 41(7), 751-762. O'Connor, E. E., Collins, B. Phone? A., Supplee, L. (2012). Behavior problems in late childhood: The roles of early maternal attachment and teacher-child relationship trajectories.
Attachment Human Development, 14 (3), 265-288. O'Connor E., McCartney, K. Literary? (2007). Examining teacher-child relationships and achievement as part of the ecological model of development. American Educational Research Journal , 44 (2), 340-369. Pianta, R.C., La Paro, K., Hamre, B. (2006). CLASS: Classroom Assessment Scoring System Manual: K-3 Version.
Charlottesville, VA: The Center for number Advanced Study of Teaching and william gilpin essay, Learning. Pianta, R. Number? C., Stuhlman, M. Essay In Schools? W. Phone? (2004). Teacher-child relationships and children's success in for essay, the first years of school. School Psychology Review, 33(3), 444-458. Reddy, R., Rhodes, J. E., Mulhall, P. (2003). The influence of teacher support on student adjustment in the middle school years: A latent growth curve study.
Development and Psychopathology, 15, 119-138. Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., Elbertson, N. A., Salovey, P. (2012). The interaction effects of program training, dosage, and implementation quality on targeted student outcomes for THE RULER Approach to phone, social and emotional learning. School Psychology Review , 41 (1), 82-99. Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. Library? E., White, M., Salovey, P. (2012). Classroom emotional climate, student engagement, and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology , 104 (3), 700-712. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Baroody, A. E., Larsen, R. A. A., Curby, T. W., Abry, T. (2014). To what extent do teacher-student interaction quality and student gender contribute to fifth graders' engagement in number, mathematics learning? Journal of for essay Educational Psychology . Apa Style? Advance online publication. Rimm-Kaufman, S. Book? E., Chiu, Y. I. (2007).
Promoting social and academic competence in the classroom: An intervention study examining the contribution of the Responsive Classroom Approach. Psychology in the Schools , 44(4), 397-413. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Curby, T. Apa Style Phone? W., Grimm, K. J., Nathanson, L., Brock, L. L. (2009). Describe Library? The contribution of children's self-regulation and classroom quality to apa style, children's adaptive behaviors in the kindergarten classroom. Developmental Psychology, 45 (4), 958-972. Rimm-Kaufman, S. Summary? E., Early, D., Cox, M., Saluja, G., Pianta, R., Bradley, R. et al. Phone? (2002). Early behavioral attributes and essay computers in schools, teachers' sensitivity as predictors of competent behavior in the kindergarten classroom. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 23 , 451-470.
Rimm-Kaufman, S. Apa Style Phone Number? E. Hamre, B. (2010). The role of psychological and developmental science in efforts to improve teacher quality. Teacher College Record,112 (12), 2988-3023. Rudasill, K. M., Reio, T. - 5 Literary? G., Stipanovic, N., Taylor, J. E. (2010). A longitudinal study of student-teacher relationship quality, difficult temperament, and risky behavior from childhood to early adolescence. Journal of apa style phone School Psychology, 48 (5), 389-412. Rudasill, K. M., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Justice, L. William Gilpin? M., Pence, K. (2006). Temperament and language skills as predictors of teacher-child relationship quality in preschool. Early Education and Development , 17(2), 271-291. Saft, E.W. Phone? Pianta, R.C. (2001).Teachers' perceptions of their relationships with students: Effects of paragraph essay child, age, gender and ethnicity of teachers and children.
School Psychology Quarterly, 16, 125-141. Sheridan, S. M., Knoche, L. L., Edwards, C. Apa Style? P., Bovaird, J. A., Kupzyk, K. A. (2010). Parent engagement and school readiness: Effects of the Getting Ready intervention of preschool children's social and emotional competencies. Early Education and essay on the use of computers in schools, Development, 21 (1), 125-156. Solomon, D., Battistich, V., Watson, M., Schaps, E., Lewis, C. (2000). A six district study of educational change: Direct and mediated effects of the Child Development Project. Social Psychology of Education , 4, 3-51. Spangler Avant, T., Gazelle, H., Faldowski, R. (2011). Classroom emotional climate as a moderator of anxious solitary children's longitudinal risk for peer exclusion: A child x environment model. Developmental Psychology , 47 (6), 1711-1727.
Stuhlman, M. W., Pianta, R. C. Apa Style Phone? (2009). Essay On Prints? Profiles of educational quality in apa style phone, first grade. The Elementary School Journal , 109 (4), 323-342. Valeski, T.N. Stipek, D.J. (2001). Young children's feelings about school.
Child Development , 72, 1198-1213. Weinberger, E., McCombs, B. L. Gilpin Essay On Prints? (2003). Applying the LCPs to high school education. Theory into Practice, 42(2), 117-126. Weinstein, R., Marshall, H. H. (1984). Ecology of students' achievement expectations. Final report to the National Institute of Education. Washington, DC: National Institute of Education. Wentzel, K. Apa Style Phone Number? (1997). Student motivation in middle school: The role of rubric - 5 essay perceived pedagogical caring. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 411-419.
Wentzel, K. Apa Style Number? (2010). Students' relationships with teachers. In J. L. Meece, J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Handbook of research on schools, schooling, and human development (pp. 75-91). Essay On The Computers? New York: Routledge. Whitlock, J. L. (2006). Apa Style Phone Number? Youth perceptions of life at school: Contextual correlates of gilpin school connectedness in adolescence. Applied Developmental Science , 10 (1), 13-29.
Williams, J. Apa Style Phone? M. Bryan, J. (2013). On Pollution In Our Cities? Overcoming adversity: High achieving African American youth's perspectives on educational resilience. Journal of Counseling Development , 91 (3), 291-300. Willingham, D. T. (2011). Ask the cognitive scientist: Can teachers increase students' self-control? American Educator , 35 (2), 22-27. Zins, J. E., Elias, M. J., Greenberg, M. T., Weissberg, R. P. (2000). Promoting social and apa style phone number, emotional competence in summary, children. In K. M. Minke G. G. Bear (Eds.), Preventing school problems — promoting school success: Strategies and programs that work (pp.
71-99). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. 750 First St. NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242 | Contact Support. 750 First St. NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242 | Contact Support.
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A Comprehensive Guide to apa style APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an book reviews, overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and number examples for rubric paragraph literary each source type, and other helpful information related to apa style phone number APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out library, Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the number, APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching.
When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to english book reviews prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is apa style phone, derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and essay on prints there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in phone, your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage.
Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of library essay citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the phone, full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of essay citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information.
Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is number, it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related.
APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in for essay, 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of phone number these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. English! You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project!
Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to phone understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in english reviews, 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and apa style scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of on prints access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in phone, the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. Paragraph Literary! There are two types of apa style number citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations.
In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at essay, the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the apa style phone, in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Reviews! Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using.
Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for number the source you’re trying to cite. English Book Reviews! If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in number, research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and on the use of computers in schools scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and apa style number include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in gilpin, your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it.
In addition to apa style phone using the william gilpin on prints, exact words from another source and apa style phone placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. English Book! They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase.
This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the number, land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. In Our Cities! 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by phone, Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to english help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is apa style phone number, found on our homepage.
Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by summary, the author’s last names. Phone Number! They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published).
Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to essay computers format it in the sections that follow. Apa Style Phone Number! The names of essay authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. Apa Style Phone Number! M. Kent, A. Gilpin Essay! G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. Apa Style! J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only library, include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. Apa Style Phone Number! , . Rubric Essay! Lopez, G. Apa Style Phone! S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you.
Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for essay on pollution newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and apa style number only the year for - 5 essay journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. Apa Style! When writing out william essay on prints, titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only phone number, capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the - 5 paragraph, subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in phone, an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Summary For Essay! Hyde.
Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and apa style chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the essay cities, nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. Phone! The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in library essay, italics or quotation marks.
In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. Phone! They are either placed in italics or not. Describe Essay! Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and apa style is part of a larger whole, do not place it in for essay, italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the apa style number, source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title.
Use a brief descriptive term and rubric - 5 paragraph literary capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. Apa Style! R. Use Of In Schools! (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. Apa Style Phone Number! USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on - 5 paragraph literary essay the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication.
For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form.
However, if Books or Press are part of the phone, publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is essay cities, listed first, by phone, itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of book reviews computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Apa Style! Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the essay on pollution in our cities, publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the number, publisher information from the citation.
After including the essay use of computers, location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Phone Number! Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in paragraph literary, your citations for you. Apa Style Phone! Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation.
DOI numbers are often created by publishers for gilpin essay journal articles and apa style other periodical sources. They were created in reviews, response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of apa style its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the rubric paragraph literary essay, source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. Apa Style Phone! - It is describe library essay, not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically.
Click here for apa style phone more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. Library! (1942). Great expectations . Apa Style Phone Number! New York, NY: Dodd, Mead.
Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Summary For Essay! Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published).
Chapter title. Apa Style Phone! In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48).
Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to essay on the use of the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Apa Style Phone Number! Auerbach, K. On Prints! Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89).
Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Number! Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Paragraph Essay! Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. Number! http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from essay http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Phone! Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. Essay On Pollution! A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419.
If your source is number, found online, but there is reviews, no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for apa style online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Essay On The Use Of Computers! Title of article.
Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. Phone Number! T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. Essay! http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Phone! Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. On Pollution Cities! Author, F. Apa Style Phone! I. (Year, Month Day Published).
Title of article. Title of essay Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. Phone! (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. Describe Library Essay! You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of apa style phone article . Essay Cities! Title of Newspaper.
Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of apa style number action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. Gilpin Essay! I. (Year, Month Published).
Title of phone number article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title.
Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com.
On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to gilpin on prints choose from phone number standard, audio, and paragraph video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for apa style phone you. Rubric - 5 Paragraph Literary! Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel.
Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of phone number cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. On Pollution In Our! If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Apa Style Number! Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). For Essay! Title of film [Motion picture].
Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. Apa Style Number! (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in describe library, film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. Apa Style Phone! It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation.
However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. Summary! (2011, December 12).
Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in phone, text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the - 5, name of the number, songwriter is the same as the computers in schools, name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the apa style phone, song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Summary For Essay! Song title [Recorded by First initial.
Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Apa Style Number! Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file].
Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and essay in our musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of phone database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014).
The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from english American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Apa Style Number! Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11).
History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of describe library essay posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. Apa Style Number! (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. English! Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. Phone Number! If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is not on this guide?
Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in essay, addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is apa style, a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. William Essay On Prints! A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research.
A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Apa Style! Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).
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Lesson 4 Project Officers Report On January 11, 2003 at 9:08 am ET. Apa Style! I received a phone call from Jane Doe who said her and her daughter, Jane Doe 2, would . Summary! like to apa style come down to essay the station and have a privet talk with a police officer as soon as possible. I said No problem. Phone! She stated she would be right down. Around 4:26 ET.
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[pic] A research Report on Traffic problems in Big Cities (Islamabad) [pic] By: Aqsa Shahzadi (100827) Basharat Jamil (100811) Kaneez . Amna (100869) Sidra Tul Muntaha (100809) Hamza Ashraf (100803) Submitted to: Mr. Naveed Ahsan Business communication BBA-3B [pic] Air University Islamabad [pic] Table of gilpin essay on prints, Content Contents Page No 1. Introduction 3 1.1 Core issue: 3 1.2 Purpose: 3 1.3 Scope 3 . Arterial road , Intelligent transportation system , Islamabad 1077 Words | 7 Pages. AT A GLANCE: Police Officer William L. Potts of Detroit, Michigan, decided to do something about the problem caused by the ever increasing . number of automobiles on the streets. What he had in mind was figuring out a way to adapt railroad signals for street use. Potts used red, amber, and green railroad lights and about thirty-seven dollars worth of wire and electrical controls to phone number make the use of world’s first 4-way three color traffic light. Phone! It was installed in 1920 on the corner of Woodward and Michigan. Green , Pedestrian crossing , Traffic 600 Words | 3 Pages. them have a process to how a trail starts from beginning to end.
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research and find out what a teachers job was about, but then I looked it up and realize that I was just joking to myself. Going on into middle and high . school I was still confused on what I wanted to be, until I went down to rubric - 5 paragraph a police academy and apa style number seen what was being done. These police officers were very serious about their job and essay on prints their motives were to number keep the crime out and put the good in people that were willing to describe library change or comprehend on apa style number, things. They weren’t here to just be here and look cute with a. 2008 singles , Constable , Motivation 1116 Words | 3 Pages. Police bruality essay for college class i guess. Police Brutality Police brutality occurs daily across America. Police brutality can come in various forms, . counting lethal and nonlethal force. Comprehending the exact commonness of william on prints, police brutality is complex, because of the inconsistency in apa style number describing police brutality. The trouble in differentiating among justified and unjustified force.
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Constable , Crime , Misdemeanor 833 Words | 3 Pages. MUMBAI TRAFFIC POLICE TRAFFIC MANUAL Map of Mumbai Police Commissionerate :- FACTS . Phone! FIGURE :Facts Figures Area Population (2001 Census) Vehicle Population ( March 2007) Road Length Vehicles per km Road Length 437.71 Sq. Km (Excluding National Park) 1.19 Crore 15.03 Lac 1941 Km 717 per Km Enforcement Statistics HEADS No. of essay on pollution, cases No. of Vehicles Towed Action against Parking Violations ompounding Charges / fine recovered Action of suspension of phone, M.D.L Taxi Auto Rickshaw Total 1495. Bandra , Constable , Mumbai 11321 Words | 35 Pages. ?1. In 2010, a traffic jam on a highway near Beijing kept cars stuck in traffic for more than a week (9-12 days according to . different sources). Literary! The traffic jam itself went on apa style phone, for 97 kilometers. The locals sold food and water to the drivers for prices that were 10 and more times higher than normal. Cities like New York, London, and summary Paris have all had to phone deal with thousands of cars running through their streets each day.
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Constable , Crime , Crime prevention 878 Words | 3 Pages. The public police have to fulfil many roles, what tensions can this create?DRAFT. This essay will look at how the public . police officers within the UK have to fulfil many roles and the tensions of which these can create. To define the term Police in simplistic terms is describe library essay ‘The arrangements made in all civilised countries to ensure that the inhabitants keep the peace and obey the phone law… the william gilpin essay on prints force of peace officers (or Police ) employed for apa style number this purpose.’ (Metropolitan police 2011). Police officers in. Constable , Crime , Crime prevention 1099 Words | 3 Pages. force by police so disturbing? Are the describe essay police using more force? With so much going on in the media, the public is more terrified . Apa Style Number! of the summary for essay police . Many are not comfortable with calling up Law Enforcement. Many feel police officers abuse their authority. It seems as if they’re abusing their authority as police officers.
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By: Miguel Zapatero Date: March 20, 2013 Course: ENG1113 Semester: Spring 2013 Instructor: Dr. Pat Nickell Paper: 4 During these holidays we have in the spring, spring break, I made a road trip with my friends through several cities and states of the U.S. coast. Automobile , Congestion pricing , Intelligent transportation system 798 Words | 3 Pages. The traffic can be a nightmare for visitors to Viet Nam for the first time. Believe it or not, there are transport rules but people don't seem . really interested in essay cities following them.
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Green , J. P. Knight , Lester Wire 860 Words | 3 Pages. A police officer's duty is to maintain public order, preventing, and detecting crime. Apa Style Number! The concept of police officers, also known . as cops, and law enforcement has been around ever since the ancient Romans had a theory that an organization of peacekeepers would reduce the gilpin on prints crime and violence being committed. This theory stuck with society and is still around today. People of law enforcement have a mission when they step into their police car, that mission is to enforce the rules of conduct or law.
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Officers generally do most of the routine traffic stops and grunt work, while the higher up the ladder the more influential the work is inside the department. The Sergeants also sometimes are in the public doing routine grunt work, but are usually strictly in the department stations. Chiefs seldom become involved in low level policing, staying. 2002 albums , Constable , Fixing Broken Windows 418 Words | 2 Pages. Police Encounter Matthew A Loos Kaplan University CJ227: Criminal Procedure Unit 2 Assignment July 15, 2013 Officer Smith, in my . opinion, had reasonable suspicion to conduct a traffic stop on the female driver the night in apa style number question. According to (Lasker, 2012), “In People v. Hackett, 2012 IL 111781, a unanimous supreme court overturned the appellate and trial court decisions and remanded the case for a trial based on evidence stemming from what the court held to be a justified investigatory. Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Jury , Probable cause 940 Words | 3 Pages. Urban Environment Traffic congestion in cities is a problem throughout the world. Evaluate the effectiveness of one official initiative . Reviews! undertaken to tackle this issue. Traffic congestion has become one of the serious issues globally due to the rise in number traffic demand. On The In Schools! As a result of ineffectiveness of existing devices and methods in reduction of bottlenecks, it is apa style phone more obvious to discover new strategies rather than constructing new alternatives and expansion in essay on the in schools public transportation infrastructure.
Congestion pricing , Electronic toll collection , Road pricing 1302 Words | 4 Pages. Police Corruption Second Essay for apa style number AJ 101 Krystal Lamas Victor Valley Community College Author Note This paper was . prepared for AJ 101 for Mr. Ronald M. Field .M.A. Abstract Police corruption is a complex issue. Police corruption or the rubric paragraph literary essay abuse of authority by a police officer, acting officially to fulfill personal needs or wants, is a growing problem in the United States today. Things such as an phone number, Internal Affairs department, a strong leadership organization, and for essay community support are just. Constable , Corruption , Crime 957 Words | 3 Pages. out for apa style phone number a child, running on road. » • Watch out for a animal on essay in our cities, road. » • Watch out for a speed breaker. » Exercise tolerance, respect other's . Apa Style Number! rights. Essay! » • Overtake with caution and care. » • A motorbike is for phone number two, not for too many. Essay In Our Cities! » • Traffic rules are life saving tools. Number! » • Break should be perfect. » • Don't drive if feeling dizzy, or sleepy. » • Clean the windscreen before driving. Rubric - 5! » • Use the mirrors for rear or side view. Apa Style Phone! » • They are your third eye. » • Watch the literary rear before. Automobile safety , Driving , Fog 891 Words | 4 Pages.
The Role of Police . People depend on police officers and detectives to number protect their lives and on the property. Law enforcement . officers, some of whom are State or Federal special agents or inspectors, perform these duties in a variety of apa style number, ways, depending on the size and type of describe, their organization. In most jurisdictions, they are expected to exercise authority when necessary, whether on or off duty. Police officers have general law enforcement duties, including maintaining regular patrols and responding. Constable , Crime , Criminal justice 2113 Words | 6 Pages. ?Lucy Sanchez English 1302 Mr. Gonzalez 8 April 2009 Police Brutality Draft Who can forget the Los Angeles riots and the Rodney King . beating in 1991? This case of apa style, police brutality was the most widely known.
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Most police officer discretion is apa style phone number exercised in situational situations with. Chicago Police Department , Constable , Crime 2121 Words | 6 Pages. Police Department Organization Paper “What if the summary for essay structure of phone number, police organizations is shaped by factors beyond easy human . Rubric Literary! contrivance, such as the size and age of the force, the degree of stability in the political environment, the complexity of governmental regulation, the number geographical dispersion of the population, or the on the in schools nature of police work itself” (Maguire 2003)? * In this paper I will describe in detail various types of phone number, police agencies at the local, state, and federal level and how. Constable , Criminal Investigation Department , Federal government of the United States 957 Words | 3 Pages. ? Police Culture in the United States Norris R. Billingsley, Richard Reynolds, Norris R. Billingsley CJA 214 December 27, 2013 . Yolonda Johnson Introduction Policing, is an occupation described as hours of boredom, followed by extreme moments of fear and terror, with coffee and donuts thrown into the mix at times. It is also a culture perceived by the public as corrupt, aggressive, racist, and above the on pollution in our cities law which empowers them. In an occupation where these extremes exist, it is. Constable , Crime , Criminal justice 1427 Words | 4 Pages.
Luz Puentes 04/24/13 Policing Police patrolling I picked police patrolling for the simple fact they are as important as . Phone! any other cop in the field. Patrol remains the describe library essay backbone of police operations. It consumes most of the resources of police agencies. On patrol, a police officer makes regular circuits or passes through a specific area called a beat. Officers sometimes patrol on foot but usually ride in cars.
The main advantage of car patrol over foot patrol is increased efficiency of apa style number, coverage. Constable , Crime , Criminal justice 1260 Words | 4 Pages. History of Police September 05, 2013 Throughout this essay the writer will be discussing the history of the . police . Describing the impact that a gentleman named Sir Robert Peel had on American policing. A look at the relationship between the U.S. government and the policing organizations throughout the United States. William On Prints! Lastly how these relationships may affect police practices today. As we begin lets first get an understanding for what a police organization is defined as. “The police are a constituted. Constable , Law enforcement , Law enforcement agency 1188 Words | 4 Pages. Police Discretion David Gonzalez University of Phoenix Introduction to Policing CJA/370 Professor John W. Feltgen June 23, 2005 . Abstract In this paper I will discuss police discretion and the use of these discretionary powers in the law enforcement workplace. I will explore the mythical aspects of police discretionary powers and the source of apa style, this myth.
I will further discuss the english book reviews control of discretionary authority. I will name instances of law enforcement officials using their discretionary. Alien , Constable , Discretion 1541 Words | 4 Pages. Police Department Role And Functions. ? Police Department Roles and Functions Shontay Manigault CJA/214 1/11/2015 Kevin Marshall Police Department Roles and . Functions There are many various functions of police agencies. Patron, traffic , juvenile services, intelligence and undercover, and special operations are just some of the various functions of police agencies. There are many differences between the apa style number functions of the police agencies and the federal, state, and the local levels.
There are reasons of why you need to have various. Constable , Crime , Federal Bureau of Investigation 1172 Words | 6 Pages. History of Police History of Police The role of police officers is very significant to American history. . - 5 Paragraph Literary! Police work toward protecting citizens’ rights and helping America become the land of the free. The United States of America is apa style phone built from the U.S. Constitution Bill of Rights and police play a major role in making sure American rights are met. Evolution has changed many of American history for the better; policing is part of those changes. As new issues in society arise, police must change. Constable , Crime , Federal Bureau of Investigation 1256 Words | 4 Pages.
Composition 1 Argumentative Research Essay Final Draft. Police Brutality Police work is dangerous. . Sometimes police put in situations that excessive force is library needed. Apa Style! But, because some officers use these extreme measures in situations when it is not, police brutality occurs. I believe Police brutality needs to be addressed, because it affects every one of us within our society. How can we trust the Police officers who sworn to “serve the public” when they use such excessive force that results.
Chicago Police Department , Constable , Police 1383 Words | 4 Pages.
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latin resume Note liminaire : La présente traduction de Virgile fait partie de la Bibliotheca Classica Selecta (BCS) mais elle s'intègre aussi dans le vaste projet Du texte à l'hypertexte mis au point à la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de Louvain à l'initiative de Jean Schumacher. Phone? Les possibilités de cette dernière réalisation sont multiples ; non seulement elle permet une lecture de l'oeuvre avec le texte latin et la traduction française en regard, mais elle donne également accès à un riche ensemble d'outils lexicographiques et statistiques très performants. 1. Library Essay? Junon écarte les Troyens d'Italie (1,12-80) 2. Apa Style Phone Number? La tempête : les Troyens en péril (1, 81-123) 3. Essay Use Of? Les Troyens accostent en Libye (1, 124-179) 4. Apa Style Phone? Énée se conduit en chef responsable (1, 180-222) 1. - 5 Literary? Vénus implore Jupiter (1, 223-253) 2. Apa Style Number? Jupiter prophétise la grandeur de Rome (1, 254-304) 3. Summary? Une inconnue informe Énée sur Didon (1, 305-368) 4. Number? L'inconnue écoute Énée et le rassure (1, 369-417) 1. For Essay? Carthage ville naissante (1, 418-449) 2. Apa Style Phone? Le temple de Junon et les souvenirs de Troie (1, 450-493) 3. On The Computers In Schools? Didon accueille les compagnons d'Énée (1, 494-578) 1. Apa Style? Didon accueille Énée (1, 579-642) 2. On Pollution Cities? Vénus substitue Cupidon à Ascagne (1, 643-694) 3. Phone Number? Didon prise au piège de Cupidon (1, 695-756).
Sujet de l'nide et invocation la muse. Les premiers vers, suivis d'une invocation à la Muse, présentent d'emblée le sujet de l'oeuvre : l'arrivée du Troyen Énée en Italie et les combats qu'il dut mener avant son installation dans le Latium ; bien que protégé par le destin, il fut longtemps la victime des dieux et de Junon en particulier (1, 1-11). Junon écarte les Troyens d'Italie (1, 12-80) Junon rêvait de la suprématie pour Carthage. On The Computers In Schools? Mais, connaissant les arrêts du destin, elle pressentait la victoire future de Rome, nouvelle Troie, sur Carthage (1, 12-22). Depuis longtemps hostile aux Troyens, pleine de rancoeur et de jalousie à l'égard de Pâris, de Dardanus et de Ganymède, elle malmenait sur la mer les exilés Troyens (1, 23-33). Irritée de les voir s'approcher de l'Italie et ressassant ses vieilles rancoeurs, évoquant la tempête soulevée par Pallas Athéna contre les Argiens et Ajax, se sentant humiliée et limitée dans son pouvoir, elle songe à déchaîner elle aussi une tempête contre les Troyens (1, 34-49). Aussitôt, Junon se rend auprès du dieu Éole, préposé par Jupiter à tenir les vents enchaînés dans de sombres cavernes et, flattant habilement le docile Éole, lui promettant une nymphe pour épouse en guise de récompense, elle le convainc de déchaîner une tempête (1, 50-80). La tempête - Les Troyens en péril (1, 81-123)
Un seul geste d'Éole libère les vents, déchaînant la tempête et les ouragans. Number? Les Troyens se sentent en péril et Énée est désespéré, regrettant de n'être pas mort à Troie, comme nombre de ses compagnons d'armes (1, 81-101). Le navire d'Énée est mis à mal; trois bateaux sont projetés sur des récifs, trois autres échouent dans des bas-fonds; Oronte et ses Lyciens sont engloutis avec leur navire; des naufragés surnagent; d'autres vaisseaux sont gravement endommagés (1, 102-123). Les Troyens accostent en Libye (1, 124-179) Neptune constatant la tempête provoquée par Junon reproche aux vents et à Éole d'avoir outrepassé leurs pouvoirs (1, 124-141). William On Prints? Puis, tel un héros pieux apaisant les passions d'un peuple révolté, il ramène le calme sur la mer, avant de reprendre sa course (1, 142-156). Les Troyens épuisés découvrent sur le rivage de Libye un endroit protégé où amarrer leurs bateaux (1, 157-169). Apa Style Number? Énée et les rescapés de sept navires débarquent, s'installent sur la plage, vont récupérer dans les bateaux armes et vivres et s'activent à préparer un repas (1, 170-179). Énée se conduit en chef responsable (1, 180-222) Énée, s'inquiétant des autres bateaux de sa flottille, scrute en vain la mer mais est mis sur la trace d'une harde de cerfs. William Gilpin? En chasseur expérimenté, il abat sept bêtes qu'il distribue aux sept équipages des navires rescapés (1, 180-194).
Il cherche ensuite à rendre courage à tous ses compagnons : il leur distribue le vin reçu en Sicile et, évoquant leurs épreuves passées, sans laisser paraître son angoisse, il leur parle de jours meilleurs, où Troie renaîtra (1, 195-209). Après un repas copieux sur la plage, partagés entre la crainte et l'espoir, tous évoquent les disparus. Phone Number? Énée en particulier gémit sur le sort de ceux qu'il sait ou croit morts (1, 210-222). Vénus implore Jupiter (1, 223-253) Dans le ciel, Vénus implore son père en faveur des Troyens. Summary For Essay? Fine diplomate, elle flatte Jupiter, insiste sur la piété de ses protégés, lui rappelle ses promesses de faire naître des Troyens le peuple destiné à régner sur l'univers (1, 223-237). Elle compare les épreuves que leur inflige Junon au sort d'Anténor, un autre rescapé de Troie, établi en Illyrie (1, 238-253). Jupiter prophétise la grandeur de Rome (1, 254-304)
Jupiter rassure Vénus sur le sort des Troyens et l'avenir d'Énée, puis entreprend de brosser un tableau de l'histoire de Rome avant sa fondation : guerre entre Troyens et Rutules ; fondation de Lavinium ; mort et divinisation d'Énée après trois ans ; règne d'Ascagne-Iule pendant trente ans ; fondation d'Albe la Longue ; dynastie albaine de race troyenne pendant trois cents ans ; naissance des jumeaux (1, 254-274). Il annonce ensuite la fondation de Rome ; l'empire universel de la nouvelle Troie, après la conquête romaine de la Grèce, présentée comme l'ultime vengeance des Troyens ; le revirement de Junon elle-même et enfin l'avènement d'Auguste-César, descendant des Troyens et instaurateur de la paix (1, 275-296). Il dépêche enfin à Carthage son messager Mercure, qui inspire à Didon et aux Carthaginois des sentiments bienveillants à l'égard des Troyens (1, 297-304). Une inconnue informe Énée sur Didon (1, 305-368) Entre-temps, Énée explore les lieux, quand sa mère Vénus se présente à lui sous les traits d'une jeune chasseresse. Number? Sans la reconnaître, bien que pressentant sa qualité de déesse, il l'interroge sur le pays où il a échoué (1, 305-334). La chasseresse, sans révéler son identité, le renseigne sur l'histoire de Carthage et de sa fondatrice : Didon avait épousé en Phénicie le riche Sychée, assassiné secrètement par le roi de Tyr, son beau-frère Pygmalion, jaloux de ses richesses. - 5 Paragraph Literary? Un jour le fantôme de Sychée révéla à Didon le crime de Pygmalion et lui conseilla de fuir, en lui disant où se trouvaient des trésors cachés.
Didon s'embarqua et arriva en Libye avec ses partisans et ses richesses ; elle se procura le territoire où s'élève maintenant sa ville (1, 335-368). À son tour, Énée renseigne l'inconnue sur son passé et sur le but que lui dicte le destin : il veut gagner l'Italie pour y installer les Pénates de Troie arrachés à l'ennemi ; mais, victime d'une tempête, il a échoué, avec sept navires, sur les côtes de Libye (1, 369-384). L'assurant de la protection des dieux, l'inconnue engage Énée à se présenter à la reine des lieux et lui annonce, sur la foi d'un présage, le sauvetage de la flotte qu'il croyait perdue (1, 385-401). Énée reconnaît alors Vénus qui disparaît aussitôt, le laissant quelque peu frustré. Apa Style? Mais elle le soustrait auparavant à la curiosité des Libyens, en l'enveloppant d'un nuage, avant de rejoindre sa demeure de Chypre (1, 402-417). Carthage ville naissante (1, 418-449) Énée et Achate, parvenus sur une colline proche de la ville, à l'abri de leur nuage, voient s'édifier une ville moderne et imposante, en proie à une activité fébrile, comparable à celle que déploient des abeilles (1, 418-436).
Ne pouvant s'empêcher de comparer sa situation à celle de ces heureux Tyriens, Énée se mêle à la foule, sans être vu (1, 437-449). Le temple de Junon et les souvenirs de Troie (1, 450-493) Tout en attendant la reine au pied du temple, Énée en examine diverses représentations figurant des scènes de la guerre de Troie. Describe Library? Ce spectacle, témoignant de l'admiration et de la compassion à l'égard des héros troyens, ranime son courage (1, 450-463). Sont évoqués les combats devant Troie, mais surtout les déboires troyens : massacre au camp de Rhésus et mort du fils de Priam Troïlus, vaine démarche des suppliantes troyennes auprès de Pallas, et enfin démarche de Priam auprès d'Achille, obtenant que lui soit rendu le cadavre d'Hector (1, 464-487).
Quelques scènes évoquent ensuite l'action d'Énée à Troie, les armées venues de l'Orient et les Amazones (préfiguration de Didon ?), servant en quelque sorte de transition à la suite du récit (1, 488-493). Didon accueille les compagnons d'Énée (1, 494-578) Énée, toujours invisible, aperçoit Didon venant s'installer sur un trône devant le temple, et découvre une reine puissante, respectée, résolue, équitable et efficace. Phone Number? Soudain, heureux autant qu'effrayés, Énée et Achate reconnaissent quelques-uns de leurs compagnons rescapés en train de s'avancer en suppliants vers la reine, au milieu des protestations de la foule (1, 494-519). Le vieil Ilionée, leur porte-parole, implore la bienveillance d'une reine protégée de Jupiter et éprise de justice. Summary For Essay? Lui demandant sa protection, il l'informe sur leur aventure et la rassure sur leurs intentions. Number? Surpris de l'hostilité rencontrée, il finit par évoquer la possibilité d'un châtiment divin, et surtout le retour possible de leur chef, le juste, le pieux, le vaillant Énée.
Il demande comme seule faveur de pouvoir réparer les navires, afin de gagner l'Italie avec Énée, ou sinon, la Sicile, où ils sont assurés d'un bon accueil (1, 520-560). Didon alors les rassure, justifiant l'accueil hostile des Libyens par la jeunesse de son royaume. Essay On Pollution In Our? Elle promet aux Troyens de faciliter leur départ pour l'Italie ou la Sicile, mais leur propose plutôt de partager le pouvoir avec elle, souhaitant comme eux le retour d'Énée vivant (1, 561-578). Réconfortés par cette vue, Énée et Achate sont tentés de révéler leur présence ; soudain, le nuage disparaît et Énée apparaît miraculeusement transfiguré. Apa Style Phone Number? Il se présente alors à Didon, la remercie pour sa compassion et sa bonté, et lui souhaite la bénédiction des dieux, avant de serrer les mains de ses compagnons retrouvés (1, 579-612). Revenue de sa stupeur, Didon se montre avertie des malheurs des Troyens et disposée à les secourir. Summary? Décrétant des actions de grâces aux dieux et faisant livrer des animaux aux Troyens restés sur le rivage, elle introduit ses hôtes dans le palais où se prépare un somptueux festin (1, 613-642). Vénus substitue Cupidon à Ascagne (1, 643-694) Énée charge alors Achate de retourner aux navires et d'en ramener Ascagne et des présents, parures princières sauvées du sac de Troie, qu'il destine à Didon (1, 643-656). Entre-temps Vénus imagine un stratagème pour protéger Énée contre Junon et demande le concours de son fils Cupidon, le puissant dieu de l'Amour. Phone Number? Elle lui suggère de se substituer momentanément à Ascagne afin d'inspirer à Didon une passion brûlante pour Énée, tandis qu'elle emportera Ascagne endormi à Chypre.
Cette suggestion est immédiatement adoptée (1, 657-694). Didon prise au piège de Cupidon (1, 695-756) Didon accueille les Troyens dans un cadre luxueux où se déroule un banquet fastueux tant par les mets que le nombre des serviteurs. Book? Les présents des Troyens et le jeune Iule/Cupidon émerveillent les nombreux Tyriens présents mais surtout la reine, qui tombe sous le charme de Cupidon déguisé, jouant son rôle à la perfection (695-722). Didon procède ensuite aux libations à l'aide de la coupe ancestrale des Tyriens et invoque solennellement Jupiter, Bacchus et Junon, saluant ce jour comme une fête pour Tyriens et Troyens ; la coupe se transmet aux convives, tandis qu'un poète savant chante les phénomènes astronomiques et les origines des vivants (723-747).
Passionnément amoureuse, Didon cherche à prolonger la fête, posant à son hôte mille questions sur Troie, et l'invitant enfin à raconter la chute de la ville et ses propres aventures (748-756).