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book summary format This is a guide to formatting your book in have Microsoft Word (2010). We'll be making a 6x9 PDF for print; but you can easily change the document to another size. You can watch these three videos, or go through the italicized, guide down below. Do Research A Thesis? Make sure you visit the homepage and sign up for the free package of book formatting templates! How to format a book for print in MS Word - Tutorial #1. How to format a book for print in MS Word - Tutorial #2. How to format a book for print in MS Word - Tutorial #3. Did you know you can drag and drop whole sections around in MS Word (just like you can in Scrivner)? It helps a ton with organization. Open a new document.
Click “size” “More paper sizes” and should essay italicized set the document to do research papers have a thesis statement, 6”x9” (or your book size). Then set the margins and gutter. Make sure to apply to the “whole document” instead of “this section.” I set this one to 1 margins on do all the top and bottom (a bit too much on the top). The Gutter is extra space on the inside. Recently (2014) I've noticed that Createspace book spines are much more glued-together, so the gutter may need to be a little bigger. Copy and paste your text into the document (or, if you’ve already been writing in have a thesis statement Word, save the document as a new file (to be safe) and then start formatting. Highlight some text and click on the line options tab. - 5 Paragraph Literary? Set the indent for the first line of paragraphs to papers have, .2 or so (I started with .3, but that's too much). Make sure there's no space before or after the paragraph, and justified text. Select the font you want to use.
With that text still selected, right click, go to “Styles” and “Update Normal to Match Selection.” Now your whole document is application writing, using the “Normal style.” Then select the first paragraph of your book, click line spacing options again, but set the first line indent at 0.0. This time, right click and “Save the selection as a new style.” Save it as “First Paragraph.” Next, we’re going to separate all the chapters. This will be really important later when we start adding headers and do research papers statement footers. So put the resumes need letter, cursor before any of the text, go to “Page Layout” “Breaks” and “Next Page.” If you’ve done this right, the do research have a thesis statement, first page will say “First page Footer, Section 1” and the top of the ielts, next page will say “First Page Header, Section 2.” Click into the headers area (by clicking the space at the top of the page) and make sure you’ve checked Different First Page” and “Different Odd and Even Pages.” Because this is the first page of the do research papers a thesis, first chapter, you can begin styling the chapter pages. To make use of Word’s built in Table of Contents function, it’s best to start with Word’s preset “Heading One.” Just type “Chapter One”, select it, pick “Heading 1” from the styles, then change the size and font, select the text and right-click, then under styles click “Update Heading One to match selection.” (I've changed the font to no-indent, black, and Bebas Neue.) You may want to expand the text by application bringing up the a thesis statement, fonts menu (Ctrl+D on Windows) go to advanced, spacing and “expanded.” You should also check to make sure there’s no indent on your chapter title, so that it’s really centered. If you have a “Navigation” window open on writing the left side, this heading should show up right away.
Now you may want to papers a thesis statement, style the first sentence. Select the first few words, and rubric - 5 paragraph literary transform them to papers have a thesis statement, uppercase by going to dental questions, the “Change Case” button on the Home menu. Then, to add a Dropcap, put the cursor before the do research papers statement, first letter of the first sentence, then go to the Insert panel and click the DropCap feature. You can change the font of the paragraph essay, drop cap to stand out even more, but getting the positioning right can be tricky. If you want the papers have a thesis, Dropcap to take two lines instead of three, choose “Drop Cap options” from the menu. Now that our first page is hygiene case, ready, move down to the second page and click in the top area to select the header. Up on a thesis the menu, the “Link to Previous” is probably selected. You want to click on it to unlink it (just for the first pages, so they don't link with the front matter. For the remaining pages, you'll want link to previous selected). I’ll type in “Book Title”, get the should essay, style right and then save it as a new quick style (“headers”).
I’ll align right. If you have “gutter” set up, you can see that the “inside” of the page (on the left) has more spacing. Papers Have A Thesis? You want to align your headers and footers to the outside, so make sure it’s on the side of the college application report writing, page with the smaller margins. Then I’ll go into the footers area, click “Insert”, then page numberscurrent positionplain number . This enters a page number field. Mine starts on page 3. Do Research A Thesis Statement? If I want to change this, I could go to Insertpage numbersFormat page numbers and application writing then choose “start at #. Do Research Papers Have Statement? ” instead of “continue from previous section.” Then I can go down to the next page. Because I’ve selected “Different Odd Even Pages” I can make this page a little different, by aligning left and typing “Author Name.” Then, instead of inserting the page number again, I can just select and copy the page number field from the essay goals example, previous page, and paste it into the footer of papers a thesis this page – aligning it left like the header. To check my work, I’ll go to “View” and hit the rubric literary essay, “Two pages” so I can make sure that it looks OK. There’s a little too much space between my headers and the content… but that’s because I set my top page margins to 1” (a bit much). I’ll leave it for have now. The headings and page numbers look fine, so I’ll go back to View 100% and continue on.
The whole first chapter should look pretty good now. If I want to style section breaks I could… a simple way is to use the “First Paragraph” style again with all caps on the first few words, but no dropcaps. When I get down to the bottom of the chapter, I’ll put the cursor below the text, select Page layoutBreaks and should essay hit “Next Page” again. Because this is the first page of a new section, and we’ve selected “Different First Page” this page should be blank, with no headers and footers, so you can style it like the first Chapter Page. In Word, it’s hard to line up everything exactly. The best way to get it 100% consistent is to select and copy from just above the first paragraph to the top of the do research papers statement, page, including all the spaces and Chapter Header, and then pasting it the do all resumes, first page of the next chapter.
That’s also a little faster than redoing everything manually. Then I can just change the text to “Chapter Two”. The following pages in have statement the book should have the same headers and essay goals example footers, and the page numbers should be automatic. So all you need to do is skip through and adding Next Page breaks between every chapter, and styling the do research papers a thesis statement, chapter pages. If your page numbers aren’t working for should italicized any reason, make sure the “Link to Previous” option is selected.
If they still aren’t connecting, go to format page numbers and “continue from previous.” You can also just select the page number field from the previous section and copy it into the one that's broken. If you’ve been setting all your quick styles (first paragraph, normal, header, headings, page numbers) going through the chapters like this should be pretty fast. If you get stuck with anything, it will probably be with the headings and footers and page numbers. When you finish styling your chapters, switch to Two-Pages view so you can check everything over. Right and left-align can be confusing, even if you are viewing it in Two-Pages mode, because Word may not show it as it actually prints. Just keep in mind the extra wide margins are the statement, inside gutter, so these are aligned on the outside, even though they look like they will be on the inside. Goals? If you’ve been using the “Heading 1” style, Word has automatically been adding in your chapters to the navigation, which you should see on the navigation panel on the left.
So let’s go back to the front and add the “front matter”, including the table of do research papers a thesis statement contents. Adding the Copyright Page, Title Page and TOC. Put the cursor before chapter one and add a new “Next Page” break. Essay Prompts? You’ll need these pages: 1. Title Page 2. Copyright page 3. Do Research Papers Have? Table of Contents 4. Dedication. Your title page will want to match the cover pretty closely – see if your designer will give you the fonts he used – you may need to space out the do all resumes need a cover, lettering quite a bit. If you ask, your designer can probably save you a transparent PNG of the cover text (just like on the cover, but without the art) that you can add into the title page. Your copyright page will look something like this (you can use this if you want): TITLE Copyright © 2013 by Author Name. All rights reserved. Statement? Printed in the United States of America. Admission Prompts? No part of do research papers statement this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations em- bodied in critical articles or reviews. Hygiene Case Studies Questions? This book is a work of fiction.
Names, characters, businesses, organiza- tions, places, events and incidents either are the product of the do research, author’s imagination or are used fictitiously. Popular College Prompts? Any resemblance to actual persons, living or dead, events, or locales is entirely coincidental. Do Research Statement? For information contact; address www.website.com. Book and Cover design by application report writing Designer. Have A Thesis? First Edition: Month 2013.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. Essay Goals? The 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 on the bottom refers to the editions, so if it goes until “1” it means first edition. If this was the fourth edition, you’d write: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4. Do Research Have A Thesis? These numbers should be close to the bottom of the page. It can be centered, left or right aligned, and with much smaller font size (9 or 10). If you’re indie publishing, the copyright page isn’t a big deal – in fact you can stand out by using something more creative. I tend to do all letter, use a simple message like “Feel free to share this – just don’t try to pass it off as your own! If you enjoy this book, I really hope you’ll do me the favor of leaving a review. You can connect with me @creativindie.” There's something to do research a thesis statement, be said for essay trying to look as professional as possible though, especially with the print book; but I also think it's fine to own up to and even take pride in the fact that you self-published, as some skeptics may feel you're trying to do research, hide it otherwise. Make another “next page” break. Then go to the “references” tab and hit Table of Contents. You should get an automatic Table of Contents.
You may need to delete some areas, or change the - 5, fonts and styles (if you do, make sure to papers statement, save it as a new style… it’s really annoying to keep restyling it if you forget to application ielts, do this). Because this table is automatic, you can “Update Table” and do research a thesis statement “Update Page Numbers Only” if you do rewrites or add content later. For the TOC, you probably need to make the text about 14pt, and add a little more spacing. If this is a novel, you don’t really need a table of contents, but that’s up to you. For the example, front pages, you’ll probably want to do research papers have a thesis, make sure there’s no indents anywhere, so everything is properly aligned. Be a little careful on these front pages – if a header or footer gets added in, and a later page is set to “link to previous” – then when you delete it on the front pages it will erase the headers and college writing ielts footers throughout the book.
Instead, go to the next page with headers and do research uncheck “link to dental studies questions, previous” – then you can delete the headers on the front pages. Also, the copyright page is usually on the back of the title page (on the left hand side), while the dedication, Table of papers statement Contents and Chapter One usually starts on the right hand side – this means you’ll have to leave some blank pages in between. You can zoom way out to see everything together. Hygiene Case? Sometimes I need to use a real book, or picture the pages on my hand and flip my palm back and forth, to get this right. Note – some books have all chapter pages on do research papers have a thesis the right hand side – if you want to do that, just add an extra blank page by adding more “Next Page” breaks, and make sure they aren’t connected to any headers or footers so they stay blank. Rubric - 5? That’s it – I’m going to papers a thesis statement, attach the sample I made for this tutorial, you can download it by resumes letter clicking these links: Template-sample(.docx) Template-sample (.doc) (They won't look the same unless you have the papers have statement, same fonts. Resumes Need Letter? so the first thing you'll want to do research have a thesis statement, do is change the. Chapter Heading font to something that matches your book. Hopefully you've already got a great book cover, but if not, take a look at italicized my huge list of do research have best fonts per genre here.) If you get stuck and are frustrated, I highly recommend finding someone on Fiverr.com. Pay them $10.
25 to fix whatever problem you’re stuck on; it’s worth it. Ps) It can save some time if you learn a few useful keyboard shortcuts for MS Word. Essay? There's a full list here. Do Research Papers Have A Thesis? The one I use the most is Ctrl+z which undoes your last action. If so, please share it!
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Do Research Papers Have A Thesis …
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Then try to gather as much content as possible and do research a thesis, make sure that there is no in hygiene questions it. It is possible that your interviewers will cross-check all the information and verify all the details before recruiting you, so there is papers have a thesis, no scope for any mistake. You might be inquired and questioned on the projects or experiences that you have gathered and rubric - 5 literary, worked with. So make sure to revise and test your knowledge before including them in your resume. There are several resume writing guidebooks available in the market that might help you.
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compels us act essay Updated 13 March, 2005. Published in do research papers have a thesis statement Science, December 13, 1968. For copyright permission, click here. The author is essay goals, professor of biology, University of California, Santa Barbara. This article is based on a presidential address presented before the meeting of the papers have, Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Utah State University, Logan, 25 June 1968. At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, Wiesner and York (1) concluded that: Both sides in the arms race are . Resumes Need A Cover Letter? confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. Do Research Papers? It is do all need letter, our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution.
If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation. I would like to focus your attention not on the subject of the article (national security in a nuclear world) but on do research papers a thesis statement, the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is no technical solution to the problem. Popular College? An implicit and almost universal assumption of have statement, discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of hygiene case studies questions, morality. In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome.
Because of previous failures in do research a thesis prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. College Admission Essay? Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to papers have a thesis statement, the problem was not to writing, be found in the natural sciences. They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, It is our considered professional judgment. . Do Research Have Statement? . College Report? . Whether they were right or not is papers, not the concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of a class of human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and, more specifically, with the identification and discussion of one of these. It is easy to show that the class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Literary? Consider the problem, How can I win the game of tick-tack-toe? It is well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the game perfectly.
Put another way, there is no technical solution to the problem. I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word win. I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can drug him; or I can falsify the do research statement, records. Every way in which I win involves, in some sense, an abandonment of the game, as we intuitively understand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game--refuse to play it. This is what most adults do.) The class of No technical solution problems has members. My thesis is that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class.
How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is popular admission essay prompts, fair to say that most people who anguish over papers statement the population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the evils of overpopulation without relinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem--technologically. I try to show here that the solution they seek cannot be found. The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the game of tick-tack-toe. Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. College Essay? In a finite world this means that the per capita share of the world's goods must steadily decrease.
Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for the view that the world is infinite; or that we do not know that it is have a thesis, not. Rubric - 5 Paragraph? But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is finite. Space is no escape (2). A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. Do Research Have? (The case of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the situation of mankind? Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No--for two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one. It is not mathematically possible to maximize for two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by popular von Neumann and Morgenstern (3), but the principle is implicit in the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to papers have a thesis, D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts.
To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and work. For man, maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Essay Goals Example? Anything that he does over do research a thesis and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by work calories which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call work in common speech; they are also required for all forms of enjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to report writing, playing music and writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it is papers have statement, obvious what we must do: We must make the work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art . I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal is ielts, impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the usual assumption that it is the acquisition of energy that is the problem.
The appearance of do research papers have a thesis, atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem. The problem of the hygiene case studies, acquisition of energy is replaced by the problem of its dissipation, as J. H. Fremlin has so wittily shown (4). The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is still unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the maximum. The difficulty of defining the do research have a thesis statement, optimum is enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem. Reaching an should acceptable and stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work--and much persuasion. We want the maximum good per person; but what is good?
To one person it is wilderness, to do research statement, another it is ski lodges for thousands. To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for college report writing ielts, hunters to do research papers, shoot; to another it is factory land. Popular College? Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable. Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of judgment and a system of weighting are needed. In nature the criterion is survival. Is it better for a species to be small and hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the values of the variables.
Man must imitate this process. Papers A Thesis Statement? There is rubric - 5 paragraph literary essay, no doubt that in fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin. The problem for the years ahead is to work out an acceptable theory of have a thesis, weighting. Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the essay goals, future make the intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at the present time, even on an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is have a thesis, no prosperous population in the world today that has, and has had for some time, a growth rate of zero.
Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and remains zero. Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is below its optimum. However, by any reasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations on earth today are (in general) the most miserable. This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimistic assumption that the positive growth rate of a population is evidence that it has yet to essay goals example, reach its optimum. We can make little progress in working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcize the spirit of Adam Smith in the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of a thesis, Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an individual who intends only his own gain, is, as it were, led by an invisible hand to promote . the public interest (5). Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and essay perhaps neither did any of his followers. But he contributed to papers statement, a dominant tendency of thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to assume that decisions reached individually will, in fact, be the best decisions for an entire society.
If this assumption is correct it justifies the continuance of our present policy of laissez-faire in reproduction. If it is correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to produce the college report ielts, optimum population. If the assumption is not correct, we need to reexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones are defensible. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in do research population control is to be found in a scenario first sketched in a little-known pamphlet (6) in 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852). We may well call it the tragedy of the do all letter, commons, using the word tragedy as the philosopher Whitehead used it (7): The essence of dramatic tragedy is not unhappiness. It resides in do research have a thesis statement the solemnity of the remorseless working of things. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of human life by incidents which in fact involve unhappiness. For it is only by them that the college writing ielts, futility of escape can be made evident in the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way.
Picture a pasture open to all. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons. Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and disease keep the do research papers have a thesis, numbers of both man and beast well below the carrying capacity of the land. Finally, however, comes the day of reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of social stability becomes a reality. At this point, the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain. Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the utility to me of adding one more animal to my herd? This utility has one negative and one positive component. 1) The positive component is a function of the studies, increment of one animal. Do Research Have Statement? Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the sale of the additional animal, the positive utility is nearly +1. 2) The negative component is a function of the additional overgrazing created by one more animal.
Since, however, the effects of do all resumes need, overgrazing are shared by all the papers have, herdsmen, the negative utility for any particular decision-making herdsman is only a fraction of -1. Adding together the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd. Essay Goals? And another; and another. But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit--in a world that is limited.
Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all. Some would say that this is a platitude. Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the forces of psychological denial (8). The individual benefits as an papers have individual from his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of which he is a part, suffers. Education can counteract the natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of generations requires that the basis for rubric, this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in Leominster, Massachusetts, shows how perishable the knowledge is. During the Christmas shopping season the do research papers have a thesis statement, parking meters downtown were covered with red plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas.
Free parking courtesy of the mayor and city council. In other words, facing the hygiene, prospect of an do research papers a thesis statement increased demand for already scarce space, the example, city fathers reinstituted the system of the commons. (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by this retrogressive act.) In an approximate way, the logic of do research papers have a thesis, commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the discovery of agriculture or the invention of private property in real estate. But it is understood mostly only in special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Even at - 5 this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on the western ranges demonstrate no more than an ambivalent understanding, in constantly pressuring federal authorities to increase the head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance.
Likewise, the oceans of the world continue to suffer from the survival of the philosophy of the commons. Maritime nations still respond automatically to the shibboleth of the freedom of the seas. Professing to believe in the inexhaustible resources of the oceans, they bring species after species of fish and do research papers have a thesis whales closer to extinction (9). The National Parks present another instance of the working out studies of the tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to all, without limit. Statement? The parks themselves are limited in resumes need extent--there is a thesis statement, only one Yosemite Valley--whereas population seems to grow without limit. The values that visitors seek the parks are steadily eroded.
Plainly, we must soon cease to need letter, treat the parks as commons or they will be of no value anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. We might sell them off as private property. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the right enter them. The allocation might be on the basis of wealth, by the use of an do research papers have a thesis statement auction system. It might be on the basis merit, as defined by some agreed-upon standards. It might be by - 5 paragraph lottery. Or it might be on a first-come, first-served basis, administered to have a thesis, long queues. These, I think, are all the goals example, reasonable possibilities. They are all objectionable.
But we must choose--or acquiesce in papers a thesis statement the destruction of the commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the essay example, tragedy of the commons reappears in papers have a thesis statement problems of pollution. Here it is not a question of taking something out of the should italicized, commons, but of putting something in--sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into water; noxious and dangerous fumes into the air, and distracting and have unpleasant advertising signs into the line of sight. The calculations of utility are much the same as before. The rational man finds that his share of the cost of the wastes he discharges into the commons is less than the case studies questions, cost of do research papers have statement, purifying his wastes before releasing them. Essay Italicized? Since this is true for everyone, we are locked into a system of fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free-enterprises. The tragedy of the commons as a food basket is averted by private property, or something formally like it.
But the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the do research, tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to treat his pollutants than to discharge them untreated. We have not progressed as far with the solution of this problem as we have with the first. Indeed, our particular concept of private property, which deters us from exhausting the a cover, positive resources of the earth, favors pollution. Have? The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream--whose property extends to the middle of the stream, often has difficulty seeing why it is not his natural right to muddy the waters flowing past his door. Essay Goals Example? The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and fitting to adapt it to statement, this newly perceived aspect of the commons.
The pollution problem is a consequence of population. It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of essay goals example, his waste. Flowing water purifies itself every 10 miles, my grandfather used to say, and the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not too many people. Papers? But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights. Analysis of the pollution problem as a function of population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of case questions, morality, namely: the morality of an do research papers have act is a function of the state of the should, system at the time it is performed (10). Using the commons as a cesspool does not harm the general public under frontier conditions, because there is no public, the same behavior in a metropolis is unbearable.
A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an American bison, cut out only the tongue for his dinner, and discard the rest of the animal. Have? He was not in any important sense being wasteful. Today, with only a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the morality of an act cannot be determined from a photograph. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the - 5 paragraph literary essay, total system in which his act appears. One picture is worth a thousand words, said an ancient Chinese; but it may take 10,000 words to validate it. Do Research Have A Thesis Statement? It is as tempting to popular essay, ecologists as it is to reformers in general to try to persuade others by way of the photographic shortcut. But the essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally--in words. That morality is system-sensitive escaped the attention of most codifiers of do research, ethics in the past.
Thou shalt not . . . is the form of traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for particular circumstances. The laws of our society follow the pattern of ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Our epicyclic solution is to augment statutory law with administrative law. Since it is practically impossible to college ielts, spell out all the conditions under which it is safe to do research a thesis statement, burn trash in the back yard or to popular college prompts, run an automobile without smog-control, by law we delegate the do research papers a thesis statement, details to college writing, bureaus. The result is administrative law, which is rightly feared for an ancient reason-- Quis custodiet ipsos custodes ? Who shall watch the watchers themselves? John Adams said that we must have a government of laws and not men. Bureau administrators, trying to evaluate the morality of acts in papers have the total system, are singularly liable to corruption, producing a government by do all resumes a cover men, not laws. Prohibition is easy to legislate (though not necessarily to enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the mediation of administrative law. We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the sentiment of Quis custodiet denies us the use of do research papers have, administrative law. We should rather retain the phrase as a perpetual reminder of college essay, fearful dangers we cannot avoid.
The great challenge facing us now is to invent the corrective feedbacks that are needed to keep custodians honest. We must find ways to papers have, legitimate the needed authority of both the custodians and the corrective feedbacks. The tragedy of the commons is involved in population problems in another way. In a world governed solely by the principle of dog eat dog--if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to care adequately for their children.
David Lack and others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of birds (11). But men are not birds, and have not acted like them for millenniums, at least. If each human family were dependent only on its own resources; if the children of studies questions, improvident parents starved to death; if , thus, overbreeding brought its own punishment to the germ line-- then there would be no public interest in controlling the breeding of families. But our society is do research papers have, deeply committed to report, the welfare state (12), and hence is have statement, confronted with another aspect of the tragedy of the commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the religion, the - 5 literary, race, or the class (or indeed any distinguishable and cohesive group) that adopts overbreeding as a policy to secure its own aggrandizement (13)? To couple the concept of freedom to papers a thesis statement, breed with the belief that everyone born has an college report writing equal right to the commons is to lock the world into a tragic course of action.
Unfortunately this is do research papers statement, just the course of action that is do all a cover, being pursued by do research a thesis the United Nations. In late 1967, some 30 nations agreed to the following (14): The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. It follows that any choice and decision with regard to the size of the family must irrevocably rest with the family itself, and cannot be made by anyone else. It is painful to have to paragraph, deny categorically the have statement, validity of this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the reality of witches in the 17th century. At the present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to inhibit criticism of the United Nations. There is rubric - 5, a feeling that the United Nations is our last and best hope,'' that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into the hands of the do research have a thesis, archconservatives. However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is suppressed by friends is the college application report writing, readiest weapon of the enemy. If we love the truth we must openly deny the validity of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, even though it is promoted by the United Nations.
We should also join with Kingsley Davis (15) in attempting to get planned Parenthood-World Population to see the papers have a thesis statement, error of its ways in embracing the same tragic ideal. It is a mistake to think that we can control the breeding of mankind in the long run by an appeal to conscience. Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on case, the centennial of the publication of his grandfather's great book. Do Research Papers A Thesis Statement? The argument is straightforward and Darwinian. People vary.
Confronted with appeals to limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to the plea more than others. Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. The difference will be accentuated, generation by college admission essay generation. In C. G. Have A Thesis Statement? Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for the progenitive instinct to - 5, develop in this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by do research have the variety Homo progenitivus (16). The argument assumes that conscience or the desire for children (no matter which) is hereditary--but hereditary only in the most general formal sense. The result will be the same whether the attitude is transmitted through germ-cells, or exosomatically, to use A. J. Lotka's term. Rubric Literary Essay? (If one denies the latter possibility as well as the former, then what's the point of do research papers a thesis, education?) The argument has here been stated in the context of the population problem, but it applies equally well to any instance in which society appeals to an individual exploiting a commons to restrain himself for the general good--by means of his conscience. Hygiene? To make such an appeal is to set up a selective system that works toward the elimination of conscience from the race. The long-term disadvantage of an appeal to conscience should be enough to condemn it; but has serious short-term disadvantages as well. If we ask a man who is exploiting a commons to desist in the name of conscience, what are we saying to him? What does he hear?--not only at the moment but also in the wee small hours of the night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the words we used but also the nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares? Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and that they are contradictory: (i) (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for not acting like a responsible citizen; (ii) (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for do research, a simpleton who can be shamed into standing aside while the rest of us exploit the commons.
Everyman then is caught in what Bateson has called a double bind. Dental Studies Questions? Bateson and do research papers statement his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the double bind as an important causative factor in the genesis of schizophrenia (17). The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of anyone to whom it is applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is a kind of illness. To conjure up a conscience in others is tempting to anyone who wishes to extend his control beyond the legal limits. Leaders at the highest level succumb to this temptation.
Has any President during the past generation failed to call on labor unions to moderate voluntarily their demands for higher wages, or to steel companies to honor voluntary guidelines on prices? I can recall none. The rhetoric used on such occasions is designed to produce feelings of guilt in noncooperators. For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an popular college essay prompts indispensable, ingredient of the civilized life. Now, in this post-Freudian world, we doubt it.
Paul Goodman speaks from the modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. The guilty do not pay attention to the object but only to themselves, and not even to their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties (18). One does not have to be a professional psychiatrist to see the consequences of anxiety. We in the Western world are just emerging from statement a dreadful two-centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by - 5 prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by the anxiety-generating mechanisms of education. Alex Comfort has told the do research papers, story well in college application writing The Anxiety Makers (19); it is not a pretty one. Since proof is difficult, we may even concede that the do research have a thesis statement, results of anxiety may sometimes, from certain points of view, be desirable. The larger question we should ask is whether, as a matter of policy, we should ever encourage the college report, use of a technique the tendency (if not the intention) of which is psychologically pathogenic. We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the coupled words are incorporated into the titles of some organizations devoted to birth control. Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to do research papers have a thesis, instill responsibility into the nation's (or the world's) breeders. But what is the popular college admission essay, meaning of the word responsibility in this context? Is it not merely a synonym for the word conscience?
When we use the word responsibility in do research papers a thesis the absence of substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in do all resumes a cover letter a commons into acting against his own interest? Responsibility is do research papers a thesis statement, a verbal counterfeit for a substantial quid pro quo . Italicized? It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the word responsibility is to be used at do research papers have statement all, I suggest that it be in the sense Charles Frankel uses it (20). Dental Hygiene Case Studies? Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the product of do research, definite social arrangements. Notice that Frankel calls for social arrangements--not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon. The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of some sort.
Consider bank-robbing. The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by trying to control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to hygiene studies, his sense of responsibility. Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and insist that a bank is not a commons; we seek the definite social arrangements that will keep it from becoming a commons. That we thereby infringe on the freedom of do research have statement, would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of bank-robbing is particularly easy to understand because we accept complete prohibition of essay italicized, this activity. We are willing to say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for do research have a thesis, exceptions. But temperance also can be created by coercion. Taxing is a good coercive device. To keep downtown shoppers temperate in italicized their use of parking space we introduce parking meters for short periods, and traffic fines for longer ones.
We need not actually forbid a citizen to park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for him to have a thesis statement, do so. Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the greater candor of the word coercion. Coercion is a dirty word to most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. Hygiene Questions? As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by saying it over and over have a thesis without apology or embarrassment. To many, the word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of distant and irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is not a necessary part of its meaning. The only - 5, kind of have statement, coercion I recommend is mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by the majority of the people affected. To say that we mutually agree to coercion is not to say that we are required to enjoy it, or even to pretend we enjoy it. Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about do all resumes them. Papers Have Statement? But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the conscienceless.
We institute and (grumblingly) support taxes and other coercive devices to escape the resumes, horror of the a thesis statement, commons. An alternative to the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable. With real estate and other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the should, institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. It seems to me that, if there are to be differences in individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance--that those who are biologically more fit to be the custodians of property and power should legally inherit more. But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the doctrine of like father, like son implicit in our laws of legal inheritance.
An idiot can inherit millions, and have a thesis statement a trust fund can keep his estate intact. Studies? We must admit that our legal system of private property plus inheritance is do research papers have, unjust--but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at popular college prompts the moment, that anyone has invented a better system. The alternative of the commons is too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is preferable to total ruin. It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and do research have statement the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by do all resumes a cover a double standard. Whenever a reform measure is proposed it is often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in do research a thesis it. As Kingsley Davis has pointed out (21), worshippers of the status quo sometimes imply that no reform is possible without unanimous agreement, an implication contrary to should essay, historical fact. As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of proposed reforms is based on one of two unconscious assumptions: (i) that the status quo is perfect; or (ii) that the papers have statement, choice we face is between reform and no action; if the dental hygiene, proposed reform is have statement, imperfect, we presumably should take no action at all, while we wait for a perfect proposal. But we can never do nothing.
That which we have done for thousands of years is also action. It also produce evils. Once we are aware that status quo is action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and do all resumes a cover disadvantages with the predicted advantages and disadvantages of the do research papers a thesis, proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of experience. On the case studies questions, basis of such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only perfect systems are tolerable. Perhaps the simplest summary of this analysis of man's population problems is this: the commons, if justifiable at all, is justifiable only under conditions of low-population density. As the human population has increased, the commons has had to be abandoned in one aspect after another. First we abandoned the commons in food gathering, enclosing farm land and restricting pastures and hunting and fishing areas. Do Research A Thesis? These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the commons as a place for waste disposal would also have to be abandoned. Should Essay Italicized? Restrictions on the disposal of domestic sewage are widely accepted in the Western world; we are still struggling to close the commons to pollution by do research have a thesis automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is our recognition of the evils of the commons in matters of should essay, pleasure.
There is almost no restriction on the propagation of sound waves in the public medium. The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Our government is paying out billions of dollars to create supersonic transport which will disturb 50,000 people for every one person who is whisked from coast to coast 3 hours faster. Advertisers muddy the airwaves of radio and television and pollute the view of travelers. We are a long way from outlawing the papers a thesis, commons in matters of pleasure. Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of italicized, a sin, and do research papers have pain (that is, the pollution of advertising) as the sign of virtue? Every new enclosure of the commons involves the infringement of somebody's personal liberty.
Infringements made in the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of a loss. It is the should, newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of papers have, rights and freedom fill the admission essay prompts, air. Papers Statement? But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to pass laws against robbing, mankind became more free, not less so. Individuals locked into should italicized, the logic of the commons are free only to bring on universal ruin; once they see the necessity of mutual coercion, they become free to pursue other goals. Do Research A Thesis Statement? I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of necessity that we must now recognize, is the necessity of abandoning the commons in breeding.
No technical solution can rescue us from the misery of hygiene case studies, overpopulation. Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all. At the moment, to do research a thesis statement, avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to propagandize for conscience and responsible parenthood. The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in the long run, and dental studies questions an increase in anxiety in the short. The only way we can preserve and do research papers a thesis nurture other and admission more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, and that very soon. Do Research Have? Freedom is the recognition of necessity--and it is the admission essay prompts, role of a thesis, education to reveal to all the necessity of popular essay, abandoning the freedom to have a thesis, breed. Case Studies? Only so, can we put an end to this aspect of the tragedy of the commons. 1. J. B. Wiesner and H. F. York, Sci. Amer.
211 (No. 4). 27 (1964). 3. J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory of a thesis, Games and Economic Behavior (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947), p. College Report? 11. 4. J. H. Fremlin. New Sci ., No. Papers? 415 (1964), p. 285. 5. A. Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. 423.
6. W. F. Lloyd, Two Lectures on the Checks to Population (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, England, 1833), reprinted (in part) in should italicized Population, Evolution, and Birth Control , G. Hardin. Ed. (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 37. 7. A. N. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. 17. 8. G. Hardin, Ed. Population, Evolution. and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964). Do Research Papers A Thesis? p. Essay? 56. 10. J. Do Research A Thesis? Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. D. Lack, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1954).
12. H. Italicized? Girvetz, From Wealth to do research papers have a thesis statement, Welfare (Stanford Univ. Press. Stanford, Calif., 1950). 14. U. Thant, Int. Planned Parenthood News , No.168 (February 1968), p. 3. 15. K. Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16.
S. Tax, Ed., Evolution after Darwin (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. 2, p. Essay? 469. 17. G. Bateson, D. D. Jackson, J. Haley, J. Weakland, Behav. Sci. 1 . 251 (1956). 18. P. Goodman, New York Rev.
Books 10 (8), 22 (23 May 1968). 19. A. Comfort, The Anxiety Makers (Nelson, London, 1967). 20. C. Frankel, The Case for Modern Man (Harper, New York, 1955), p. 203. 21.
J. D. Roslansky, Genetics and the Future of Man (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1966). p. 177.